About 66.2% of subjects were engaging in vigorously active lifestyle with a median consumption of 2032 kcal comprising ~66% carbohydrate and ~14.7% fat calories and this pattern was consistent at the highest tertile of MSG intake (68% carbohydrate and 14.1% fat calories). Direct conversion of macronutrients to calories at the highest tertile indicates carbohydrate consumption reaching ~71% calories. The high carbohydrate and low fat consumption characteristic for this population typifies Pattern 4 diet of nutrition transition taking place in developing countries, which despite a high-activity profile and lean body phenotype would be conducive to the development of Met-S . These dietary factors with causal links to MET-S were not adjusted as confounding factors in the final analysis . The JNS study demonstrated, after adjusting for either rice intake or dietary patterns, no association between MSG intake and weight gain could be found .