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Table 5 Origin, enzymatic pathways of reactive oxygen species, and their oxidized products.

From: Uric acid: A new look at an old risk marker for cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus: The urate redox shuttle

[Origin and Location]
Enzymatic Pathways:
[ROS]
Potent Oxidants:
[Products]
Oxidized lipids and proteins:
Mitochondrial Respiratory
Chain
O2
-OH
Oxidized lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and autoxidation byproducts
Inflammatory Macrophage
Membranous NAD(P)H
Oxidase
O2
-OH
H2O2
Advanced lipoxidation endproducts (ALE)
ortho o-tyrosine
meta m-tyrosine
Granular Myeloperoxidase
(MPO)
Hypochlorous acid
HOCL
Tyr (Tyrosine)
NO2
3-Chlorotyrosine
di-Tyrosine
NO2-(Nitrotyrosine)
Macrophage   
Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS)
Inducible (iNOS)
Large bursts – uncontrolled
ONOO NO2-(Nitrotyrosine)
Endothelial Cell   
Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS)
Constitutive (cNOS)
eNOS → NO
nNOS → NO
Small bursts – controlled
NO + O 2 → ONOO
ONOO
NO2-(Nitrotyrosine)
NO2-(Nitrotyrosine)
eNOS-derived NO NO The GOOD * Natural-occurring, local-occurring, chain-breaking, antioxidant
Superoxide O 2 The BAD * Toxic effects of ROS on proteins, lipid, nucleic acids
Peroxynitrite ONOO The UGLY * Toxic effects of ROS on proteins, lipid, nucleic acids
Hypochlorous acid HCLO The UGLY * Toxic effects of ROS on proteins, lipid, nucleic acids
Restoration of eNO
Via the eNOS reaction
Antioxidant
Antioxidant
Prevention of the toxic effects of ROS
  1. * Beckman JS and Koppenol WH [1996] Nitric oxide, superoxide, and peroxynitrite: the good, the bad, and ugly. Am J Physiol 271(5 Part 1): C1424–C1437