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Table 1 Effect of Path on energetics of oxidation

From: Thermodynamics of weight loss diets

Macronutrient & path Mass ATP/mole Kcal/gm Efficiency (%)
Glucose → CO2 180 38 1.54 38.5
Glucose → glycogen → glucose → CO2 180 36 1.40 35
"Average" AA → CO2    1.32 33
AA → Protein → AA → CO2   -4 1.08 27
Palmitate → CO2 256 129 3.68 40.9
Palmitate → Ketone → CO2 256 121 3.45 38.3
  1. *Adapted from Feinman, Fine: 2003 Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders (1): 209–219 [2]