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Table 4 Change of body weight,body composition,abdominal fat area, index in glycaemic control factor and blood pressure measurements at the 0-wk and 12-wk of the study

From: Kochujang, fermented soybean-based red pepper paste, decreases visceral fat and improves blood lipid profiles in overweight adults

Parameters Kochujang group (n=30) Placebo group (n=30)     
  0wk 12wk Change* 0wk 12wk Change* P value1 P value2 P value3 P value4
Body weight (kg) 66.6±1.4 66.6±1.4 0.06±0.3 68.5±2.4 68.8±2.5 0.3±0.3 0.577 0.140 0.244 0.439
Body fat mass (kg) 22.3±0.7 22.0±0.8 -0.3±0.3 24.5±1.6 24.5±1.6 0.0±0.0 0.476 0.480 0.172 0.391
Body fat (%) 33.4±0.8 33.0±0.9 -0.4±0.4 34.7±.0.9 34.6±0.9 -0.1±0.2 0.498 0.351 0.391 0.413
BMI 26.5±0.4 26.4±0.4 -0.1±0.1 27.4±0.8 27.5±0.9 0.03±0.0 0.606 0.692 0.248 0.544
WHR 0.91±0.006 0.89±0.009 -0.1±0.1 0.90±0.007 0.90±0.01 0.1±0.009 0.351 0.692 0.475 0.274
Total fat (cm2) 333.4±29.6 280.6±28.8 -52.8±33.3 324.8±17.9 272.1±12.6 -52.8±6.2 0.998 0.187 0.680 0.972
Visceral fat (cm2) 81.1±5.5 76.2±5.6 -4.8±3.3 78.4±4.8 78.9±4.3 0.4±2.1 0.043 0.001 0.974 0.038
Subcutaneous fat (cm2) 252.3±27.1 204.4±26.7 -47.9±33.4 246.4±17.0 193.2±11.1 -53.2±6.6 0.875 0.107 0.649 0.869
VSR 0.37±0.03 0.42±0.03 0.05±0.02 0.36±0.01 0.44±0.03 0.08±0.01 0.218 0.001 0.849 0.302
SBP (mmHg) 117.3±2.4 120.3±2.4 2.9±2.4 119.3±2.3 119.7±2.4 0.4±1.5 0.367 0.260 0.706 0.447
DBP(mmHg) 74.5±1.9 75.4±1.9 0.9±1.9 75.6±1.6 76.9±2.1 1.3±1.5 0.880 0.877 0.548 0.813
Pulse rate(bpm) 68.8±2.1 68.4±1.6 -0.4±1.3 71.4±1.8 71.5±2.0 0.1±1.4 0.748 0.506 0.272 0.726
FPG(mg/dl) 84.6±1.6 80.7±1.8 -3.8±1.1 81.6±1.6 79.6±1.9 -1.9±1.0 0.217 0.056 0.454 0.188
HbA1c(%) 5.42±0.03 5.42±0.08 0.007±0.05 5.42±0.01 5.47±0.01 0.05±0.06 0.607 0.567 0.673 0.681
  1. All values are expressed as means ± SE.
  2. WHR waist to hip ratio, VSR Visceral adipose tissue to subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio.
  3. P value1, t-test between changes of the Kocujinag and placebo group : P value2,3,4 time, group and interaction(time*group) effect of two-way repeated measure ANOVA, after adjusting for age and gender.
  4. * Change = 12 wk – 0wk.
  5. † Paired t-test between 0-wk and 12-wk (P<0.05).