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Table 5 Serum lipid profiles of the Kochujang and placebo groups at the 0-wk and at 12-wk of the study

From: Kochujang, fermented soybean-based red pepper paste, decreases visceral fat and improves blood lipid profiles in overweight adults

Parameters Kochujang group (n=30) Placebo group (n=30)     
  0wk 12wk Change* 0wk 12wk Change* P value1 P value2 P value3 P value41
Total cholesterol(mg/dL) 193.4±5.1 189.8±5.9 -3.6±3.9 196.4±6.3 197.9±5.1 1.5±4.2 0.378 0.047 0.740 0.367
Triglycerides(mg/dL) 112.5±9.1 94.6±5.8 -17.9±8.5 125.6±12.7 139.1±13.8 13.5±12.9 0.049 0.412 0.026 0.042
HDL (mg/dL) 52.3±1.9 51.2±1.9 -1.07±1.5 52.3±2.2 50.9±1.8 -1.32±1.7 0.912 0.100 0.923 0.670
LDL (mg/dL)) 124.9±4.7 122.3±5.2 -0.25±0.14 125.9±6.1 123.6±5.3 -0.15±0.14 0.630 0.188 0.874 0.960
Free fatty acid (μEq/L) 631.8±43.2 604.7±37.4 -27.1±53.9 542.2±34.7 631.9±43.0 89.8±44.0 0.098 0.658 0.669 0.170
ApoA1 (g/dL) 1.44±0.03 1.26±0.03 -0.18±0.03 1.45±0.04 1.31±0.03 -0.14±0.03 0.284 0.002 0.729 0.216
ApoB(g/dL) 0.87±0.03 0.70±0.03 -0.17±0.02 0.88±0.04 0.76±0.04 -0.12±0.02 0.049 0.001 0.540 0.025
Atherosclerosis Indices           
TC/HDL 3.8±0.1 3.4±0.2 -0.42±0.2 3.9±0.2 3.8±0.2 -0.10±0.2 0.303 0.935 0.460 0.357
LDL/HDL 2.4±0.1 2.2±0.1 -0.25±0.1 2.5±0.2 2.3±0.2 -0.15±0.1 0.630 0.976 0.671 0.752
(TC-HDL)/HDL 2.8±0.1 2.5±0.2 -0.32±0.2 2.9±0.2 2.8±0.2 -0.04±0.03 0.253 0.975 0.454 0.297
ApoB/ApoA1 0.61±0.02 0.56±0.03 -0.05±0.01 0.61±0.03 0.60±0.03 -0.01±0.02 0.296 0.075 0.240 0.593
  1. All values are expressed as means ± SE.
  2. HDL High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ApoA1 Apolipoprotein A1, ApoB Apolipoprotein B, TC/HDL total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, LDL/HDL low density lipoprotein/cholesterol high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, (TC-HDL)/HDL (total cholesterol - high density lipoprotein cholesterol)/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio;
  3. ApoB/ApoA1 Apolipoprotein B/Apolipoprotein A1.
  4. P value1, t-test between changes of the Kocujinag and placebo group : P value2,3,4 time, group and interaction (time*group) effect of two-way repeated measure ANOVA, after adjusting for age and gender.
  5. * Change = 12 –wk – 0-wk.
  6. † Paired t-test between 0-wk and 12-wk (P<0.05).