Effect of CR and spice compounds on inflammatory cytokine production by splenocytes. Spleen cells were stimulated with LPS for 24 h and supernatant was used to determine production of IL-1β (A), TNF-α (B), and IL-6 (C) using ELISA. Values are means ± SEM (n = 9 mice/group). Means without a common letter differ at P < 0.05. HFD: high fat diet, CR: caloric restriction, C: curcumin, P: piperine.