Effect of CR and spice compounds on intracellular levels of T cell cytokines. Splenocytes were stimulated with 50 ng/ml PMA and 500 ng/ml ionomycin in the presence of Golgi Stop for 4 h and intracellular IL-2 and IFN-γ (A), IL-4 and IL-10 (B), and IL-17 (C) were determined using flow cytometry. Values are means ± SEM (n = 9 mice/group). Means without a common letter differ at P < 0.05. HFD: high fat diet, CR: caloric restriction, C: curcumin, P: piperine.