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Table 2 Characteristics of the study participants adjusted for age and sex by tertile of each dietary pattern score a

From: Dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in a Japanese working population

  Healthy Japanese dietary pattern Animal food pattern Westernized breakfast pattern
  T1 (low) T2 T3 (high) Trend Pa T1 (low) T2 T3 (high) Trend Pa T1 (low) T2 T3 (high) Trend Pb
Number of subjects 154 153 153   154 153 153   154 153 153  
Age (mean ± SE, year) 43.0 ± 0.8 44.2 ± 0.8 46.6 ± 0.9 <0.01 45.4 ± 0.7 44.6 ± 0.5 43.7 ± 0.7 0.13 47.1 ± 0.7 44.6 ± 0.4 42.0 ± 0.7 <0.01
BMI (mean ± SE, kg/m2) 22.8 ± 0.3 22.6 ± 0.3 22.9 ± 0.3 0.86 22.6 ±0.3 22.6 ±0.3 23.1 ± 0.3 0.23 27.7 ± 0.3 22.8 ± 0.3 22.8 ± 0.3 0.87
Workplace (A, %) 41.2 29.2 20.9 <0.01 18.7 30.9 41.4 <0.01 23.9 27.7 39.5 <0.01
Women (%) 9.5 34.7 73.5 <0.01 41.2 35.5 40.9 0.84 21.4 41.0 55.4 <0.01
Married (%) 72.6 76.5 78.9 0.18 73.5 80.8 73.5 0.97 77.5 74.3 76.1 0.86
Sedentary work (%) 80.9 87.5 80.3 0.74 76.3 85.8 86.7 0.01 88.0 81.1 79.6 0.04
Job position (low, %) 54.5 55.1 58.1 0.75 50.6 56.3 61.3 0.44 52.2 50.7 64.9 0.03
Non-occupational physical activityc (≥2 h/week, %) 23.8 29.1 38.9 0.03 30.3 25.2 36.0 0.11 28.7 36.7 25.9 0.49
Under medication for hypertension (%) 1.0 3.8 1.6 0.59 1.6 0.7 4.4 0.04 2.9 1.6 1.7 0.35
History of diabetes mellitus (%) 0.5 1.1 1.9 0.13 0.5 0.6 2.3 0.04 0.8 1.2 0.9 0.79
Current smoker (%) 24.7 15.4 13.9 0.01 17.7 18.6 16.2 0.79 27.0 19.6 7.4 <0.01
Dietary intake (mean ± SE)             
Alcohol (g/day) 237 ± 4 151 ± 5 94 ± 4 0.07 168 ± 7 158 ± 6 157 ± 6 0.72 311 ± 7 134 ± 4 26 ± 2 <0.01
Energy (kcal/day) 1630 ± 43 1780 ± 39 1868 ± 43 <0.01 1765 ± 40 1757 ± 40 1755 ± 40 0.86 1701 ± 41 1825 ± 40 1752 ± 40 0.41
Salt (g/1000 kcal/day) 5.5 ± 0.1 5.6 ± 0.1 5.9 ± 0.1 <0.01 5.0 ± 0.1 5.6 ± 0.1 6.4 ± 0.1 <0.01 5.8 ± 0.1 5.6 ± 0.1 5.5 ± 0.1 0.03
Calcium intake (mg/1000 kcal/day) 222 ± 7 260 ± 6 305 ± 7 <0.01 225 ± 6 265 ± 6 296 ± 6 <0.01 238 ± 7 271 ± 7 277 ± 7 <0.01
Rice (g/1000 kcal/day) 188 ± 6 185 ± 6 167 ± 6 0.03 231 ± 4 178 ± 4 131 ± 4 <0.01 203 ± 5 193 ± 5 144 ± 5 <0.01
  1. Abbreviation: BMI, body mass index; SE, standard error.
  2. aAll data are given as age- and sex-adjusted mean values or percentages. Mean age was sex-adjusted; percentage of women was age-adjusted.
  3. bOn the basis of general linear model, assigning ordinal numbers 1–3 to tertile categories of each dietary pattern.
  4. cPhysical activity was expressed as the sum of weekly hours spent for sport activity, as well as walking and cycling on commuting to and from work.