Role of ceramide and oxidative stress in fructose-mediated phosphorylation of Akt. Total (A) and phosphorylated (serine 473) (B) Akt in primary hepatocytes in response to glucose (G) or glucose and fructose (GF) in the absence (- insulin) or presence (+ insulin) of insulin. When present fumonisin B1 (left) was at 50 uM and taurine (right) at 1% w/v. Data in graphs are the mean ± SDEV for 6 independent experiments performed in triplicate. Experiments were 4 h in duration. * significantly different from G (p < 0.05).