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Table 3 Baseline and 8 week values for urinary estrogens and metabolites for the HF, LF and LFn3 a

From: Total dietary fat and omega-3 fatty acids have modest effects on urinary sex hormones in postmenopausal women

Analyte HF LF LFn3 P-valued
n = 15b n = 15c n = 16
Estrone (E1) (nmol/day)     
   Baseline 6.7 (4.8, 9.5) 7.2 (5.1, 10.1) 8.1 (5.8, 11.5) 0.36
   8 weeks 6.3 (4.4, 9.1) § 9.9 (6.9, 14.2) ** 8.5 (5.9, 12.1) 0.004
   P-valuee 0.39 0.02 0.92  
Estradiol (E2) (nmol/day)     
   Baseline 2.0 (1.0, 3.8) 2.2 (1.2, 4.3) 1.4 (0.7, 2.6) 0.36
   8 weeks 1.0 (0.5, 2.1) 2.1 (1.0, 4.4) 1.7 (0.8, 3.4) 0.12
   P-valuee 0.37 0.47 0.83  
Estriol (E3) (nmol/day)     
   Baseline 7.2 (3.1, 16.8) 8.5 (3.6, 19.9) 10.8 (4.7, 25.0) 0.62
   8 weeks 11.8 (6.3, 22.0) 14.3 (7.7, 26.7) 11.7 (6.3, 21.5) 0.79
   P-valuee 0.84 0.12 0.64  
E1 + E2 + E3 (nmol/day)     
   Baseline 22.9 (15.3, 34.4) 24.8 (16.6, 37.1) 23.0 (15.4, 34.2) 0.77
   8 weeks 21.5 (14.3, 32.2)§ 35.7 (23.9, 53.4)** 26.8 (18.1, 39.8)§† 0.03
   P-valuee 0.51 0.02 0.60  
2-hydroxyestrone (2OH-E1) (nmol/day)    
   Baseline 22.7 (16.5, 31.2)§† 25.0 (18.2, 34.4)§ 18.5 (13.5, 25.3) 0.02
   8 weeksf 17.6 (13.7, 22.7) 20.4 (15.8, 26.3) 24.1 (18.8, 30.9) 0.23
   P-valuee 0.19 0.81 0.29  
2-methoxyestrone (2-ME1)(nmol/day)    
   Baseline 1.6 (0.7, 3.8) 3.4 (1.5, 7.8) 3.1 (1.4, 7.1) 0.21
   8 weeks 1.4 (0.7, 3.1) 2.1 (0.9, 4.5) 3.3 (1.5, 7.1) 0.23
   P-valuee 0.98 0.48 0.91  
2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME2) (nmol/day)    
   Baseline 1.3 (0.6, 3.3) 3.9 (1.6, 9.4) 1.7 (0.7, 3.9) 0.09
   8 weeks 0.9 (0.4, 2.1) 1.0 (0.4, 2.3) 1.7 (0.8, 4.0) 0.39
   P-valuee 0.84 0.08 0.57  
4-hydroxyestrone (4OH-E1) (nmol/day)    
   Baseline 0.78 (0.51, 1.21) 1.08 (0.70, 1.68) 1.17 (0.76, 1.80) 0.21
   8 weeks 0.92 (0.66, 1.27) 1.05 (0.76, 1.45) 1.28 (0.93, 1.75) 0.25
   P-valuee 0.64 0.93 0.50  
16α-hydroxyestrone (16αOH-E1) (nmol/day)    
   Baseline 2.03 (1.10, 3.75) 2.39 (1.29, 4.44) 1.70 (0.93, 3.11) 0.62
   8 weeks 1.50 (0.82, 2.74) 2.34 (1.27, 4.29) 2.03 (1.12, 3.65) 0.52
   P-valuee 0.47 0.22 0.32  
Total Estrogens (nmol/day)     
   Baseline 73.7 (52.7, 100.1) 83.7 (60.9, 115.0) 72.8 (53.1, 99.6) 0.38
   8 weeks 65.5 (45.8, 93.8) 86.4 (60.7, 123.0) 80.6 (57.0, 113.9) 0.27
   P-valuee 0.78 0.54 0.40  
2:16αOH-E1 ratio (nmol/day)     
   Baseline 11.3 (5.4, 23.6) 10.5 (5.0, 21.9) 10.8 (5.3, 22.4) 0.98
   8 weeks 11.9 (5.7, 25.2) 10.0 (4.7, 21.3) 10.4 (5.0, 21.7) 0.90
   P-valuee 0.90 0.12 0.72  
  1. HF: high fat diet; LF: low fat diet; LFn3: low fat + omega-3 fatty acids diet; E1: estrone;
  2. 2:16αOH-E1 ratio: 2-hydroxy estrone:16α-hydroxy estrone ratio.
  3. aAll values are geometric means (95% confidence interval).
  4. bOne subject was missing urines for HF diet, thus n = 15 for HF.
  5. cOne subject was missing urines for LF diet, thus n = 15 for LF.
  6. dP-value for effect of treatment across the three diets; values with differing symbols (§,†) as a superscript are significantly different.
  7. eP-value for paired t-test comparing baseline and 8 weeks means within each diet.
  8. **8 weeks mean is significantly different from baseline mean.
  9. f8 weeks means were adjusted for baseline 2OH-E1.