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Table 3 Diet-specific coordinated dysregulation of adipose tissue genes involved in glucose and lipid catabolism expressed as significant fold changes (P < 0.05, stringency ≥ ± 1.4-fold change in expression)

From: Prediabetic changes in gene expression induced by aspartame and monosodium glutamate in Trans fat-fed C57Bl/6 J mice

  Symbol Induced by MSG Induced by ASP Induced by ASP + MSG Sig.
Mitochondrial ß-oxidation genes      
Peroxisome proliferator-activated recepto rγ, coactivator 1α Ppargc1a −1.94 −4.51 −3.49 0.048
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α Ppara −1.01 −1.99 −2.03 0.052
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B Cpt1b −1.99 −1.46 −1.63 0.028
Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, short-chain Acads −1.36 −1.32 −1.57 0.024
Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very long chain Acadvl −1.32 −1.11 −1.67 0.036
Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenaseα Hadha −1.14 −1.31 −1.50 0.036
Hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase ß Hadhb −1.06 −1.43 −1.73 0.051
Citric acid cycle (TCA) genes      
Aconitase 1, soluble Aco1 −1.79 −1.69 −1.67 0.003
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (NADP+), mitochondrial Idh2 −1.19 −1.36 −1.44 0.022
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) α2 Pdha2 −1.43 −1.82 −2.36 0.004
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) ß Pdhb −1.30 −1.36 −1.62 0.043
Succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit B Sdhb −1.32 −1.30 −1.44 0.001
Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation genes      
NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 α subcomplex 5 Ndufa5 −1.14 −1.19 −1.47 0.007
NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 α subcomplex 12 Ndufa12 −1.21 −1.24 −1.46 0.004
NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1ß subcomplex 2 Ndufb2 −1.12 −1.34 −1.55 0.016
NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1ß subcomplex 6 Ndufb6 −1.11 −1.31 −1.46 0.050
NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1ß subcomplex10 Ndufb10 1.01 −1.20 −1.76 0.010
NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 1 Ndufs1 −1.62 −1.46 −2.16 0.006
NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 6 Ndufs6 −1.29 −1.38 −1.53 0.037
NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) flavoprotein 1 Ndufv1 −1.16 −1.27 −1.60 0.005
Succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit B Sdhb −1.32 −1.30 −1.44 0.001
Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, complex 3 subunit 6 Uqcr11 −1.44 −1.44 −1.58 0.006
COX assembly mitochondrial protein homolog Cmc1 −1.17 −2.33 −2.53 0.040
Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7a polypeptide 1 Cox7a1 −1.34 −1.25 −1.66 0.005
Cytochrome c oxidase, subunit 7b Cox8b −1.32 −1.13 −1.58 0.047
Cytochrome c oxidase assembly homolog Cox11 −1.04 −1.32 −1.46 0.024
COX assembly mitochondrial protein homolog Cmc1 −1.17 −2.33 −2.53 0.040
Uncoupling protein 2 (mitochondrial, proton carrier) Ucp2 1.32 1.43 1.59 0.001
Glycolysis      
6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 2 Pfkfb2 1.37 1.99 2.47 0.050
6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 4 Pfkfb4 1.53 2.48 2.85 0.001
Mitochondrial biogenesis & assembly      
Polymerase gamma (nuclear encoded) Polg 1.42 1.72 1.94 0.038
Transcription factor A, mitochondrial Tfam −1.38 −1.32 −2.07 0.008
Mitochondrial fission process 1 Mtfp1 −1.37 −1.30 −1.64 0.004
Tu translation elongation factor, mitochondrial Tufm −1.07 2.14 1.68 0.011
G elongation factor, mitochondrial 2 Gfm2 −1.22 −2.30 −2.46 0.034
Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L3 Mrpl3 −1.06 2.03 1.79 0.054
Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L20 Mrpl20 −1.21 −1.41 −1.62 0.024
Mitochondrial ribosomal protein S24 Mrps24 1.53 −2.99 −3.31 0.037
Mitochondrial ribosomal protein S7 Mrps7 −1.12 −1.39 −1.63 0.032
Mitochondrial ribosomal protein S12 Mrps12 −1.36 −1.40 −1.73 0.011
Mitochondrial ribosomal protein S27 Mrps27 −1.16 −1.28 −1.55 0.050
Surfeit 1 Surf1 −1.22 −1.46 −1.57 0.026
Mitochondrial inner membrane organizing system 1 Minos1 −1.02 −1.44 −1.50 0.001
Inner membrane protein, mitochondrial Immt −1.13 −1.33 −1.66 0.009
Peroxiredoxin 5 Prdx5 −1.15 −1.51 −1.70 0.029
DnaJ (Hsp40) homolog, subfamily C, member 27 Dnajc27 −1.48 −1.80 −1.51 0.047
Diablo, IAP-binding mitochondrial protein Diablo 1.14 1.51 1.63 0.007
Mitochondria-dependent apoptosis      
BCL2-associated X protein Bax 1.23 1.38 1.66 0.032
Tumor protein p53 Trp53 2.13 3.57 4.39 0.004
Caspase 9 Casp9 1.44 1.86 1.70 0.034
E2F transcription factor 1 E2f1 1.52 1.73 2.60 0.025
Peroxisomal genes      
Peroxisomal biogenesis factor 1 Pex1 −1.14 −2.02 −2.05 0.054
Peroxisomal biogenesis factor 5 Pex5 −1.29 −1.55 −1.67 0.039
Peroxisomal biogenesis factor 7 Pex7 −1.10 −1.74 −1.46 0.026
Peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11 α Pex11a −1.11 −1.40 −1.48 0.012
Peroxisomal biogenesis factor 13 Pex13 −1.17 −1.60 −1.43 0.055
Enoyl-CoA, hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase Ehhadh −1.40 −1.06 −1.55 0.029
Acetyl-CoA acyltransferase 1 Acaa1a −1.32 −1.35 −1.59 0.056
ATP-binding cassette, sub-family D (ALD), member 1 Abcd1 1.29 1.69 2.09 0.051
Epoxide hydrolase 2 Ephx2 −1.17 −1.62 −1.66 0.010
Calcium homeostasis genes      
Calcium homeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein Cherp 1.55 2.21 2.37 0.002
Calcium homeostasis modulator 2 Calhm2 1.19 1.61 2.09 0.001
Calcium activated nucleotidase 1 Cant1 1.16 1.45 1.86 0.002
Mitochondrial calcium uniporter Ccdc109a 1.11 1.44 1.70 0.047
Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, P/Q type, alpha 1A subunit Cacna1a 1.37 1.65 1.62 0.016
S100 calcium binding protein A8 S100a8 −1.15 −1.60 −1.57 0.033
Mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 Cbara1 −1.08 −1.80 −1.71 0.038
Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 4 Cacng4 −1.26 −1.63 −1.85 0.000
Calcium binding protein 2 Cabp2 −1.26 −1.71 −1.98 0.015
S100 calcium binding protein A13 S100a13 −1.19 −2.09 −1.99 0.039
Solute carrier family 8 (sodium/calcium exchanger), member 1 Slc8a1 −1.40 −2.28 −2.01 0.042
Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 8 Cacng8 −1.21 −1.87 −2.13 0.026
Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1I subunit Cacna1i −1.21 −1.38 −2.61 0.045
Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 2 subunit Cacnb2 −1.56 −3.66 −2.76 0.037
Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 4 Cacna2d4 −1.77 −3.32 −3.35 0.019
Calreticulin 3 Calr3 −1.19 −1.83 −1.71 0.035