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Table 5 Relative mRNA levels of genes involved in carnitine uptake, fatty acid transport, fatty acid utilization, and glucose uptake and glycolysis in M. rectus femoris of lean rats (lean control), obese Zucker rats fed a control diet (obese control) or obese Zucker rats fed a diet supplemented with 3 g/kg diet carnitine (obese carnitine) for 4 wk 1

From: Carnitine supplementation to obese Zucker rats prevents obesity-induced type I to type II muscle fiber transition and favors an oxidative phenotype of skeletal muscle

  Lean Obese Obese
control control carnitine
  Fold of obese control
Muscle fiber transformation
 PPARD 1.11 ± 0.19b 1.00 ± 0.12b 4.18 ± 0.58a
 PPARGC1A 1.21 ± 0.17b 1.00 ± 0.16b 2.14 ± 0.42a
 PPARGC1B 0.78 ± 0.06b 1.00 ± 0.24b 2.02 ± 0.24a
Carnitine uptake
 SLC22A5 0.92 ± 0.12b 1.00 ± 0.08b 1.90 ± 0.25a
Fatty acid transport and uptake
 FABP3 1.05 ± 0.28b 1.00 ± 0.34b 2.18 ± 0.46a
 SLC27A1 1.19 ± 0.34 1.00 ± 0.23 1.46 ± 0.30
 CD36 0.71 ± 0.14b 1.00 ± 0.11b 1.52 ± 0.20a
 LPL 1.14 ± 0.22b 1.00 ± 0.28b 2.22 ± 0.35a
β-oxidation
 ACADM 1.79 ± 0.44b 1.00 ± 0.20b 3.39 ± 0.86a
 ACADL 1.11 ± 0.23b 1.00 ± 0.24b 2.25 ± 0.61a
Carnitine shuttle
 CPT1B 1.25 ± 0.31 1.00 ± 0.35 1.49 ± 0.27
 SLC25A20 1.46 ± 0.14a 1.00 ± 0.07b 1.39 ± 0.13a
Glucose uptake and glycolysis
 SLC2A4 1.41 ± 0.34 1.00 ± 0.32 1.52 ± 0.18
 HK2 1.32 ± 0.37b 1.00 ± 0.51b 3.11 ± 0.18a
 PKM 1.87 ± 0.94 1.00 ± 0.33 2.36 ± 0.46
 PFKM 1.20 ± 0.51 1.00 ± 0.32 1.23 ± 0.25
  1. 1Data are expressed as means ± SEM, n = 12 rats/group. Means and SEM of the other groups were presented as fold of the obese control group, which mean was set to 1. Means in a row without a common letter differ (P < 0.05).