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Table 2 Effects of GSPs on the expression of insulin and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers {78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), phosphorylated Jun N terminal kinase (Phosphor-JNK) and Caspase-12} of pancreatic islets in normal and diabetic rats

From: Grape seed proanthocyanidins ameliorate pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction and death in low-dose streptozotocin- and high-carbohydrate/high-fat diet-induced diabetic rats partially by regulating endoplasmic reticulum stress

Parameter (integrated optical density) Normal rats Diabetic rats
Vehicle GSPs (250 mg/kg BW) Vehicle GSPs (500 mg/kg BW)
Insulin expression 39674.25 ± 3027.60 # 38034.72 ± 2493.37 # 2337.21 ± 531.25 * 6942.99 ± 896.58 * #
GRP78 expression 1690.20 ± 491.01 # 1762.32 ± 468.30 # 15823.37 ± 2946.95 * 4180.61 ± 384.72 *
CHOP expression 2835.46 ± 711.55 # 2595.55 ± 539.14 # 5725.45 ± 1077.68 * 4642.29 ± 1048.88
Phospho-JNK expression 364.21 ± 109.88 # 395.41 ± 151.75 # 3280.48 ± 661.21 * 682.39 ± 250.81 #
Caspase-12 expression 480.29 ± 134.28 # 518.60 ± 169.85 # 5573.96 ± 1106.86 * 3768.57 ± 773.68
  1. Data were means ± SEM of 50 pancreatic islets of each group.
  2. * designated statistically significant difference from vehicle-treated normal rats, P < 0.05, # designated statistically significant difference from vehicle-treated diabetic rats, P < 0.05.