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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of subjects by quintile (Q1–Q5) of total fat intake (adjusted for energy intake): 23,115 men and 35,557 women in the JACC Study, 1988-2009

From: Dietary intakes of fat and total mortality among Japanese populations with a low fat intake: the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study

  Quintiles of total fat intake Trend P
  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5
Men (n = 23,115)
n 4,623 4,623 4,623 4,623 4,623  
Age at baseline, y 54.9 ± 9.6 55.0 ± 9.7 55.9 ± 9.8 56.4 ± 10.1 57.7 ± 10.2 <0.001
Total energy intake, kcal/d 1,716 ± 478 1,763 ± 480 1,778 ± 479 1,752 ± 497 1,692 ± 490 0.009
Total fat intake, %E median (IQR) 10.8 (9.4–11.9) 13.9 (13.0–15.0) 16.3 (15.2–17.5) 18.8 (17.6–20.3) 23.3 (21.3–25.8) < 0.001
 SFA 3.0 (2.5–3.5) 4.1 (3.5–4.7) 4.9 (4.3–5.6) 5.8 (5.1–6.6) 7.3 (6.4–8.4) < 0.001
 MUFA 3.3 (2.8–3.7) 4.3 (4.0–4.7) 5.0 (4.7–5.4) 5.9 (5.4–6.4) 7.4 (6.7–8.3) < 0.001
 PUFA 2.6 (2.1–3.1) 3.3 (2.8–3.7) 3.7 (3.3–4.2) 4.2 (3.7–4.6) 5.0 (4.4–5.6) < 0.001
Protein intake, %E median (IQR) 10.2 (9.3–11.1) 11.9 (11.1–12.7) 13.0 (12.2–13.9) 14.2 (13.2–15.2) 16.0 (14.8–17.5) < 0.001
Carbohydrate intake, %E median (IQR) 64.2 (56.9–72.4) 61.6 (54.4–68.4) 59.4 (52.8–65.7) 58.0 (51.5–62.9) 53.2 (47.5–58.1) < 0.001
BMI, kg/m2 22.8 ± 3.2 22.7 ± 2.8 22.7 ± 2.7 22.7 ± 3.3 22.6 ± 2.8 < 0.001
Weight, kg 60.8 ± 8.8 60.9 ± 8.9 60.7 ± 8.7 60.5 ± 8.6 60.0 ± 8.7 < 0.001
Sleep duration, h/d 7.4 ± 1.1 7.4 ± 1.0 7.4 ± 1.0 7.4 ± 1.0 7.4 ± 1.1 0.93
College or higher education, % 14.4 16.8 17.5 20.7 23.2 < 0.001
Alcohol consumption
 Current drinkers, % 81.2 79.1 77.4 72.8 64.7 < 0.001
 Former drinkers, % 4.1 3.9 5.0 5.9 9.6 < 0.001
Smoking
 Current smokers, % 60.4 55.4 54.0 51.4 49.3 < 0.001
 Former smokers, % 22.1 25.4 25.8 25.7 26.0 < 0.001
Vegetable consumption, g/d 80.9 ± 46.6 101.5 ± 50.3 112.0 ± 52.3 123.8 ± 53.5 139.9 ± 57.4 < 0.001
Fruit consumption, g/d 75.0 ± 62.2 94.2 ± 66.0 104.8 ± 68.3 117.0 ± 69.2 128.9 ± 70.8 < 0.001
Walking > = 1 h/d, % 49.4 50.9 50.2 49.5 48.5 0.19
Women (n = 35,557)
n 7,111 7,112 7,111 7,112 7,111  
Age at baseline, y 57.5 ± 10.0 56.4 ± 9.9 56.1 ± 9.9 55.7 ± 9.7 55.6 ± 9.8 < 0.001
Total energy intake, kcal/d 1,429 ± 400 1,447 ± 361 1,451 ± 326 1,463 ± 337 1,401 ± 376 0.002
Total fat intake, %E median (IQR) 13.7 (11.9–15.0) 17.6 (16.8–18.3) 20.1 (19.5–20.7) 22.6 (21.9–23.4) 26.8 (25.3–28.9) < 0.001
 SFA 3.7 (3.1–4.4) 5.2 (4.6–5.9) 6.3 (5.6–6.8) 7.1 (6.5–7.7) 8.6 (7.7–9.7) < 0.001
 MUFA 4.2 (3.6–4.6) 5.4 (5.1–5.7) 6.2 (6.0–6.6) 7.1 (6.8–7.5) 8.6 (8.0–9.3) < 0.001
 PUFA 3.2 (2.6–3.8) 4.0 (3.5–4.5) 4.4 (3.9–4.9) 4.8 (4.3–5.3) 5.5 (4.9–6.2) < 0.001
Protein intake, %E median (IQR) 12.3 (11.3–13.3) 14.2 (13.4–15.1) 15.3 (14.4–16.2) 16.3 (15.4–17.3) 17.9 (16.7–19.2) < 0.001
Carbohydrate intake, %E median (IQR) 71.7 (69.7–74.2) 66.6 (65.1–67.9) 63.2 (61.8–64.4) 59.8 (58.3–61.2) 54.3 (51.1–56.6) < 0.001
BMI, kg/m2 23.1 ± 3.3 23.1 ± 4.5 22.9 ± 3.0 22.9 ± 3.0 22.7 ± 3.5 < 0.001
Weight, kg 52.4 ± 8.2 52.7 ± 7.9 52.6 ± 7.7 52.6 ± 7.5 52.4 ± 7.4 0.86
Sleep duration, h/d 7.1 ± 1.1 7.1 ± 1.1 7.1 ± 1.0 7.1 ± 1.0 7.0 ± 1.0 < 0.001
College or higher education, % 7.5 9.1 10.3 11.8 14.8 < 0.001
Alcohol consumption
 Current drinkers, % 21.5 23.2 23.1 24.0 25.1 < 0.001
 Former drinkers, % 1.7 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.9 0.73
Smoking
 Current smokers, % 6.5 5.2 4.1 4.1 4.5 < 0.001
 Former smokers, % 1.7 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.5 0.39
Vegetable consumption, g/d 101.0 ± 50.7 118.5 ± 51.5 127.7 ± 52.4 137.6 ± 53.1 145.3 ± 54.9 < 0.001
Fruit consumption, g/d 112.6 ± 70.2 133.0 ± 68.9 140.7 ± 67.9 147.2 ± 67.2 149.7 ± 67.4 < 0.001
Walking > = 1 h/d, % 53.3 53.4 51.2 51.2 48.6 < 0.001
  1. Plus-minus values are means ± SD.