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Table 2 Hazard ratios (HRs) for total, cancer, cardiovascular, and other mortality by quintile (Q1–Q5) of energy-adjusted fat intake in men: the JACC Study, 1988-2009 (n = 23,115)

From: Dietary intakes of fat and total mortality among Japanese populations with a low fat intake: the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study

  No. of deaths HR (95% CI)1 Trend P
  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5
Total fat            
 Median of intake, %E       10.8 13.9 16.3 18.8 23.3  
  Total mortality 1,178 1,188 1,238 1,236 1,451 1.00 1.03 (0.95–1.12) 1.02 (0.94–1.10) 0.98 (0.90–1.07) 1.07 (0.98–1.17) 0.31
 Cancer mortality 454 505 473 491 564 1.00 1.15 (1.01–1.30) 1.03 (0.90–1.17) 1.05 (0.92–1.21) 1.17 (1.02–1.34) 0.12
 Cardiovascular mortality 311 302 339 315 398 1.00 0.98 (0.84–1.16) 1.03 (0.88–1.21) 0.91 (0.77–1.08) 1.05 (0.89–1.24) 0.80
 Other mortality 413 381 426 430 489 1.00 0.94 (0.81–1.08) 0.99 (0.86–1.14) 0.95 (0.82–1.09) 0.99 (0.85–1.14) 0.87
SFA
 Median of intake, %E       3.0 4.1 4.9 5.8 7.3  
  Total mortality 1,323 1,246 1,226 1,230 1,266 1.00 0.96 (0.89–1.04) 0.99 (0.91–1.07) 0.96 (0.88–1.04) 0.98 (0.90–1.06) 0.54
 Cancer mortality 527 478 469 494 519 1.00 0.93 (0.82–1.06) 0.95 (0.83–1.08) 0.99 (0.87–1.13) 1.05 (0.92–1.20) 0.45
 Cardiovascular mortality 343 336 363 302 321 1.00 0.98 (0.84–1.14) 1.13 (0.97–1.31) 0.89 (0.76–1.05) 0.93 (0.79–1.10) 0.30
 Other mortality 453 432 394 434 426 1.00 0.97 (0.85–1.11) 0.93 (0.81–1.07) 0.97 (0.85–1.12) 0.93 (0.80–1.07) 0.32
MUFA
 Median of intake, %E       3.3 4.3 5.0 5.9 7.4  
 Total mortality 1,235 1,156 1,226 1,237 1,437 1.00 0.96 (0.88–1.04) 0.98 (0.90–1.07) 0.92 (0.85–1.00) 1.01 (0.93–1.10) 0.99
 Cancer mortality 477 469 498 481 562 1.00 1.00 (0.88–1.14) 1.04 (0.91–1.18) 0.96 (0.84–1.10) 1.09 (0.96–1.25) 0.35
 Cardiovascular mortality 332 301 315 324 393 1.00 0.92 (0.79–1.08) 0.93 (0.79–1.09) 0.87 (0.74–1.03) 0.99 (0.84–1.17) 0.74
 Other mortality 426 386 413 432 482 1.00 0.93 (0.81–1.07) 0.96 (0.83–1.10) 0.92 (0.80–1.06) 0.95 (0.82–1.10) 0.46
PUFA
 Median of intake, %E       2.6 3.3 3.7 4.2 5.0  
 Total mortality 1,012 1,078 1,224 1,374 1,603 1.00 1.03 (0.94–1.12) 1.05 (0.96–1.15) 1.08 (0.98–1.18) 1.08 (0.98–1.18) 0.074
 Cancer mortality 425 460 491 531 580 1.00 1.04 (0.91–1.19) 1.03 (0.90–1.19) 1.05 (0.91–1.21) 1.03 (0.89–1.19) 0.66
 Cardiovascular mortality 246 261 314 370 474 1.00 1.02 (0.85–1.22) 1.06 (0.89–1.26) 1.10 (0.92–1.31) 1.18 (0.99–1.41) 0.044
 Other mortality 341 357 419 473 549 1.00 1.02 (0.87–1.18) 1.06 (0.91–1.23) 1.08 (0.92–1.25) 1.05 (0.89–1.23) 0.47
n-3 PUFA
 Median of intake, %E       0.5 0.6 0.8 0.9 1.2  
 Total mortality 998 1,091 1,252 1,338 1,612 1.00 0.96 (0.88–1.05) 1.01 (0.93–1.11) 1.01 (0.92–1.10) 1.04 (0.95–1.14) 0.21
 Cancer mortality 420 434 491 538 604 1.00 0.93 (0.81–1.06) 0.98 (0.85–1.12) 1.01 (0.88–1.16) 1.02 (0.89–1.18) 0.42
 Cardiovascular mortality 254 271 315 378 447 1.00 0.91 (0.77–1.09) 0.95 (0.80–1.13) 1.05 (0.89–1.25) 1.02 (0.86–1.21) 0.36
 Other mortality 324 386 446 422 561 1.00 1.05 (0.90–1.22) 1.10 (0.95–1.28) 0.96 (0.82–1.12) 1.08 (0.93–1.26) 0.65
n-6 PUFA
 Median of intake, %E       2.1 2.7 3.2 3.7 4.5  
  Total mortality 1,023 1,090 1,236 1,340 1,602 1.00 1.02 (0.94–1.12) 1.08 (0.99–1.18) 1.12 (1.02–1.23) 1.09 (0.99–1.20) 0.022
 Cancer mortality 440 472 494 501 580 1.00 1.03 (0.90–1.18) 1.03 (0.90–1.18) 1.02 (0.89–1.18) 1.03 (0.89–1.20) 0.72
 Cardiovascular mortality 245 251 326 376 467 1.00 0.96 (0.80–1.15) 1.14 (0.96–1.37) 1.23 (1.03–1.47) 1.18 (0.98–1.42) 0.015
 Other mortality 338 367 416 463 555 1.00 1.06 (0.91–1.23) 1.10 (0.94–1.28) 1.15 (0.98–1.35) 1.09 (0.93–1.28) 0.21
PUFA to SFA (P/S) ratio
 Median of P/S ratio       0.49 0.64 0.76 0.91 1.17  
 Total mortality 944 1,206 1,243 1,333 1,565 1.00 1.07 (0.98–1.17) 1.03 (0.94–1.12) 1.09 (1.00–1.19) 1.09 (0.99–1.18) 0.083
 Cancer mortality 408 488 486 522 583 1.00 1.05 (0.91–1.20) 0.97 (0.84–1.11) 1.01 (0.88–1.15) 0.99 (0.86–1.13) 0.72
 Cardiovascular mortality 192 336 333 358 446 1.00 1.38 (1.15–1.66) 1.29 (1.07–1.55) 1.38 (1.15–1.66) 1.39 (1.16–1.66) 0.011
 Other mortality 344 382 424 453 536 1.00 0.92 (0.79–1.07) 0.95 (0.82–1.10) 1.03 (0.89–1.19) 1.02 (0.88–1.18) 0.27
  1. 1Adjusted for age, area, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, sleep duration, walking, consumption of vegetables and fruit, and total energy intake.