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Table 3 Hazard ratios (HRs) for total, cancer, cardiovascular, and other mortality by quintile (Q1–Q5) of energy-adjusted fat intake in women: the JACC Study, 1988-2009 (n = 35,557)

From: Dietary intakes of fat and total mortality among Japanese populations with a low fat intake: the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study

  No. of deaths HR (95% CI)1 Trend P
  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5
Total fat
 Median of intake, %E       13.7 17.6 20.1 22.6 26.8  
 Total mortality 1,284 1,139 1,076 918 948 1.00 1.03 (0.94–1.11) 1.00 (0.92–1.09) 0.88 (0.81–0.96) 0.94 (0.86–1.03) 0.028
 Cancer mortality 366 373 364 316 335 1.00 1.07 (0.93–1.25) 1.06 (0.91–1.24) 0.93 (0.79–1.09) 1.01 (0.87–1.19) 0.68
 Cardiovascular mortality 430 371 356 278 293 1.00 1.05 (0.91–1.21) 1.07 (0.92–1.24) 0.87 (0.75–1.03) 0.97 (0.83–1.14) 0.34
 Other mortality 488 395 356 324 320 1.00 0.97 (0.85–1.11) 0.90 (0.78–1.04) 0.85 (0.73–0.98) 0.87 (0.75–1.01) 0.018
SFA
 Median of intake, %E       3.7 5.2 6.3 7.1 8.6  
 Total mortality 1,426 1,144 1,061 936 798 1.00 0.97 (0.90–1.05) 0.97 (0.90–1.06) 0.91 (0.84–1.00) 0.91 (0.83–1.00) 0.020
 Cancer mortality 397 381 336 360 280 1.00 1.06 (0.92–1.22) 0.96 (0.83–1.11) 1.06 (0.92–1.24) 0.92 (0.79–1.09) 0.54
 Cardiovascular mortality 484 363 363 264 254 1.00 0.97 (0.84–1.11) 1.07 (0.92–1.23) 0.85 (0.72–0.99) 0.99 (0.84–1.16) 0.46
 Other mortality 545 400 362 312 264 1.00 0.91 (0.80–1.04) 0.91 (0.79–1.05) 0.84 (0.73–0.97) 0.84 (0.72–0.98) 0.009
MUFA
 Median of intake, %E       4.2 5.4 6.2 7.1 8.6  
 Total mortality 1,337 1,118 1,038 948 924 1.00 0.98 (0.90–1.06) 0.95 (0.88–1.04) 0.91 (0.83–0.99) 0.91 (0.83–0.99) 0.012
 Cancer mortality 374 371 363 320 326 1.00 1.05 (0.91–1.22) 1.06 (0.91–1.23) 0.94 (0.81–1.10) 0.99 (0.84–1.16) 0.56
 Cardiovascular mortality 453 359 334 293 289 1.00 0.98 (0.85–1.13) 0.98 (0.84–1.13) 0.92 (0.79–1.08) 0.94 (0.80–1.10) 0.32
 Other mortality 510 388 341 335 309 1.00 0.91 (0.80–1.04) 0.84 (0.73–0.97) 0.88 (0.76–1.02) 0.82 (0.70–0.95) 0.006
PUFA
 Median of intake, %E       3.2 4.0 4.4 4.8 5.5  
 Total mortality 1,038 923 1,039 1,144 1,221 1.00 0.91 (0.83–1.00) 0.96 (0.88–1.06) 0.95 (0.87–1.04) 0.88 (0.80–0.97) 0.029
 Cancer mortality 343 306 352 380 373 1.00 0.88 (0.75–1.03) 0.95 (0.81–1.11) 0.95 (0.81–1.12) 0.86 (0.72–1.01) 0.17
 Cardiovascular mortality 329 283 344 363 409 1.00 0.90 (0.77–1.06) 1.03 (0.87–1.21) 0.96 (0.81–1.13) 0.93 (0.79–1.10) 0.59
 Other mortality 366 334 343 401 439 1.00 0.95 (0.82–1.11) 0.91 (0.78–1.07) 0.93 (0.80–1.09) 0.85 (0.73–1.00) 0.061
n-3 PUFA
 Median of intake, %E       0.6 0.8 0.9 1.1 1.3  
 Total mortality 943 973 1,088 1,075 1,276 1.00 0.95 (0.87–1.04) 0.95 (0.87–1.05) 0.91 (0.83–1.00) 0.92 (0.84–1.01) 0.053
 Cancer mortality 317 333 351 363 388 1.00 0.97 (0.83–1.13) 0.93 (0.79–1.09) 0.91 (0.77–1.07) 0.88 (0.74–1.04) 0.092
 Cardiovascular mortality 298 296 388 337 408 1.00 0.90 (0.77–1.07) 1.06 (0.91–1.24) 0.91 (0.77–1.07) 0.92 (0.78–1.09) 0.36
 Other mortality 328 344 349 375 480 1.00 0.96 (0.82–1.12) 0.87 (0.74–1.01) 0.89 (0.76–1.05) 0.95 (0.81–1.11) 0.42
n-6 PUFA
 Median of intake, %E       2.6 3.3 3.8 4.3 5.0  
 Total mortality 1,003 922 1,000 1,181 1,249 1.00 0.94 (0.86–1.03) 1.00 (0.91–1.10) 1.00 (0.91–1.10) 0.89 (0.81–0.98) 0.065
 Cancer mortality 328 324 342 390 368 1.00 0.98 (0.84–1.15) 1.01 (0.86–1.19) 1.05 (0.89–1.23) 0.89 (0.75–1.05) 0.33
 Cardiovascular mortality 312 281 314 391 429 1.00 0.93 (0.79–1.10) 1.02 (0.86–1.21) 1.04 (0.88–1.23) 0.95 (0.81–1.13) 0.92
 Other mortality 363 317 344 400 452 1.00 0.89 (0.76–1.04) 0.95 (0.81–1.11) 0.91 (0.78–1.06) 0.83 (0.71–0.97) 0.032
PUFA to SFA (P/S) ratio
 Median of P/S ratio       0.48 0.61 0.71 0.85 1.12  
 Total mortality 736 860 1,070 1,170 1,529 1.00 0.97 (0.88–1.08) 1.01 (0.92–1.12) 1.03 (0.93–1.13) 1.02 (0.93–1.12) 0.40
 Cancer mortality 286 303 340 421 404 1.00 0.90 (0.77–1.07) 0.90 (0.76–1.06) 1.08 (0.92–1.26) 0.88 (0.75–1.04) 0.49
 Cardiovascular mortality 207 270 367 342 542 1.00 1.07 (0.89–1.28) 1.17 (0.98–1.40) 0.99 (0.83–1.19) 1.12 (0.94–1.32) 0.48
 Other mortality 243 287 363 407 583 1.00 0.98 (0.82–1.16) 1.01 (0.85–1.20) 1.03 (0.87–1.21) 1.08 (0.92–1.26) 0.19
  1. 1Adjusted for age, area, education, smoking, alcohol consumption, BMI, sleep duration, walking, consumption of vegetables and fruit, and total energy intake.