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Table 3 Influence of dietary intake on plasma metabolites, hormones, and lipids in C57BL/6J mice

From: Influence of a ketogenic diet, fish-oil, and calorie restriction on plasma metabolites and lipids in C57BL/6J mice

  Diet
  Standard diet Ketogenic diet Fish-oil diet
  UR R UR R UR R
Metabolites a       
Glucose (mM) 12.8 ± 0.5 6.1 ± 0.4* 15.1 ± 0.4§ 8.5 ± 0.5*§ 8.7 ± 0.6§ 6.0 ± 0.1*§
β-Hydroxybutyrate (mM) 0.4 ± 0.0 1.4 ± 02* 1.1 ± 0.1§ 2.9 ± 0.2*§ 0.9 ± 0.1§ 2.0 ± 0.1*§
Glucose/β-Hydroxybutyrate Ratio 35.4 ± 4.7 4.6 ± 1.0* 13.4 ± 2.5§ 2.9 ± 0.9*§ 10.4 ± 2.2§ 3.0 ± 0.3*§
Hormones a       
InsuIin (pmoI/L) 182 ± 17 108 ± 3* 160 ± 7 110 ± 4*§ 112 ± 1§ 98 ± 2§
Adiponectin (μg/mL) 9.2 ± 04 18.9 ± 3.8* 11.1 ± 1.2 15.3 ± 0.8 8.7 ± 0.3 13.8 ± 1.0
HOMA-IR b 15.0 ± 1.6 4.1 ± 0.5* 15.5 ± 0.8 5.7 ± 0.4*§ 6.2 ± 0.4§ 3.6 ± 0.1§
Lipids (mg/dL) a       
Triglyceride 31.5 ± 3.2 5.0 ± 0.8* 45.5 ± 0.3§ 7.3 ± 0.2*§ 8.4 ± 2.3 7.3 ± 1.0§
Cholesterol 28.3 ± 2.0 15.9 ± 2.8* 45.9 ± 2.6§ 30.3 ± 0.3* 22.8 ± 0.5 26.0 ± 2.8
Free fatty acid 42.7 ± 3.4 64.6 ± 4.5* 48.1 ± 3.5 57.1 ± 2.5*§ 41.2 ± 2.4 44.9 ± 0.9
Cholesteryl Ester 32.1 ± 0.9 26.7 ± 0.5 55.8 ± 0.8§ 41.0 ± 1.4§ 31.9 ± 1.3 34.5 ± 3.4
Phosphatidylcholine 64.2 ± 3.8 42.2 ± 2.1* 107.9 ± 4.9§ 68.8 ± 2.9* 52.7 ± 2.3§ 59.5 ± 4.4
Lyso-phosphatidylcholine 9.3 ± 0.3 5.5 ± 0.5* 10.6 ± 0.3 6.7 ± 02 6.6 ± 0.6 5.7 ± 0.7
Phosphatidylethanolamine 4.0 ± 0.5 2.6 ± 0.4* 8.2 ± 0.9§ 5.6 ± 0.1§ 2.2 ± 0.4§ 3.0 ± 0.0
Sphingomyelin 6.8 ± 0.3 3.9 ± 2.0* 10.3 ± 0.9§ 10.2 ± 0.4§ 6.9 ± 0.1 8.2 ± 0.9
  1. aValues are expressed as the mean ± SEM (n = 4 mice per group).
  2. bHomeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance, calculated as (fasted glucose (mM) × fasted insulin (pU/mL)/22.5.
  3. *Indicates significance from unrestricted diet at p <0.01 as determined by one-way ANOVA.
  4. §Indicates significance from unrestricted standard diet at p <0.01 as determined by one-way ANOVA.