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Table 1 Neuropeptide Y family receptors with preferred ligands, receptor distribution and function in food intake and fat deposition

From: Hypothalamus-adipose tissue crosstalk: neuropeptide Y and the regulation of energy metabolism

  Y1 Y2 Y4 Y5
Preferred ligand NPY NPY PP NPY
Requires a complete N terminus NPY3-36 NPY NPY2-36
Requires intact C-terminal fragments NPY3-36
Pre vs. post junctional receptor Post-junctional Pre-junctional Post-junctional Post-junctional
Distri-bution Brain (besides hypotha-lamus) Cortex, brainstem, hippocampus, thalamus, amygdala Cortex, brainstem, hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, nucleus accumbens Subnucleus gelatinosus of NTS, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus Cortex, hippocampus, amygdala
Hypoth-alamus ARC, VMN, PVN, DMN, LH Supraoptic nucleus ARC, PVN, LH, medial preoptical area, anterior hypothalamic nucleus ARC, PVN PVN, ARC, VMN, DMN, LH
Perip-heral Thyroid, parathyroid glands, heart, spleen and digestive system, adipose tissue Adipose tissue Skeletal muscle, small intestine, pancreas, prostate, uterus, lung, colon Adipose tissue
Types of manipulation/Effects on food intake and body weight Y1 antagonist central injection/Reduced food intake[15, 16]; Y1 agonist central injection/Increase food intake[17]; Y1KO/Developed obesity, increased body fat, slight reduction in food intake[18, 19] Y2 agonist IP injection/ inhibit food intake[20]; Hypothalamus-specific Y2 KO/Increased food intake and decreased body weight; Germ-line Y2 KO/Reduced body weight and adiposity, reduced food intake in males and increased food intake in females[21] Y4 KO/Decreased body weight, less WAT, decreased 24-h food intake in male mice[22] Central administration of Y5 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides/Reduced body weight and a decrease in food intake[23, 24]; Y5 KO/ Mild late-onset obesity, increased body weight, food intake and adiposity[25]
  1. Abbreviations: KO knock out, NTS Nucleus of the solitary tract, WAT white adipose tissue, ARC arcuate nucleus, PVN Paraventricular nucleus, VMN ventromedial nucleus, DMN dorsomedial nucleus, LH Lateral hypothalamic area, IP injection intraperitoneal injection. Other references used for this table besides the papers cited above[13, 2628]. The references are not exhaustive but rather indicate key initial and/or representative studies.