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Table 3 Subject characteristics of the whey with α-lactalbumin, soy and beef protein groups

From: No protein intake compensation for insufficient indispensable amino acid intake with a low-protein diet for 12 days

  Whey protein Soy protein Beef protein
Participants, M/F ( n ) 16/23 24/26 30/28
Age (y) 35 ± 17 34 ± 19 33 ± 16
Age range (y) 18 – 70 18 – 69 19 – 70
Height (cm) 172 ± 11 174 ± 10 169 ± 10
BW (kg) 68.6 ± 13.8 73.6 ± 12.3 69.8 ± 11.8
BMI (kg/m 2 ) 23.1 ± 3.5 24.3 ± 3.2 24.4 ± 4.0
BMI range (kg/m 2 ) 18.2 – 33.9 18.1 – 33.4 18.7 – 38.7
BMR (MJ/d) 6.5 ± 1.2 6.9 ± 1.0 6.7 ± 1.0
PAL 1.76 ± 0.15 1.75 ± 0.14 1.73 ± 0.16
DER (MJ/d) 11.4 ± 2.0 12.1 ± 2.1 11.5 ± 2.1
TFEQ Dietary restraint score 6 ± 4 5 ± 3 6 ± 4
TFEQ Disinhibition score 4 ± 2 4 ± 3 4 ± 3
TFEQ Hunger score 4 ± 2 4 ± 3 4 ± 3
  1. Values shown as means ± SDs.
  2. There were no significant differences between the protein groups (factorial ANOVA).
  3. BMR, basal metabolic rate; BW, body weight; DER, daily energy requirement; PAL, physical activity level; TFEQ, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire.