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Table 2 Summary of changes in lipid profile after chronic supplementation of tocotrienols

From: Bioavailability of tocotrienols: evidence in human studies

No Reference Study design Subject (F/M) Dose (per day) Duration Finding
1 Qureshi et al. [42] Double-blind, crossover 25 hypercholesterolemic subjects (11 F/14 M) 200 mg TRF 4 weeks per intervention Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, ApoB: ↓
300 mg corn oil (placebo) HDL cholesterol, TAG, ApoA1: ↔
2 Tan et al. [37] Single arm Preliminary study: 9 healthy subjects (2 F/7 M) 42 mg TRF 30 days Total cholesterol: ↓ (n = 3), ↔ (n = 6)
  Single arm Follow-up study: 22 healthy subjects (0 F/22 M) 42 mg TRF 30 days Total cholesterol:↓ (n =4), ↔ (n = 18)
LDL cholesterol: ↓ (n = 5), ↔ (n = 17)
HDL cholesterol: ↓ (n = 3), ↔ (n = 19)
TAG: ↓ (n = 2), ↔ (n = 20)
3 Wahlqvist et al. [38] Randomized, double-blind, parallel 35 hypercholesterolemic subjects (19 F/ 16 M) 60, 120, 180, 240 mg TRF 16 weeks Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, TAG: ↔
9, 18, 27, 36 mg TRF in palm superolein (placebo)
4 Tomeo et al. [46] Randomized, double-blind, parallel 50 subjects with carotid artery atherosclerosis (27 F/ 23 M) 160, 200, 240 mg TRF 18 months Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, TAG: ↔
300 mg palm superolein (placebo)
5 Qureshi et al. [52] Randomized, double-blind, parallel 41 hypercholesterolemic subjects (22 F/ 19 M) 200 mg TRF25 4 weeks per phase Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, ApoB, Lp(a): ↓
300 mg tocopherol-stripped corn oil (placebo)
HDL cholesterol, TAG, ApoA1: ↔
6 Mensink et al. [43] Randomized, double-blind, parallel 40 mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects (0 F/40 M) 160 mg TRF/d 6 weeks Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, TAG, Lp(a): ↔
80 mg α-tocopherol (placebo)
7 O’ Byrne et al. [56] Randomized, parallel 51 hypercholesterolemic subjects (29 F/22 M) 250 mg α-, γ-, δ-tocotrienyl acetate 8 weeks Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol: ↑
HDL cholesterol, TAG, ApoB, LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio: ↔
250 mg medium-chain triacylglycerols (placebo)
8 Qureshi et al. [53] Randomized, double-blind, crossover 28 hypercholesterolemic subjects (gender not specified) 50 mg TRF25 175 days (35 days per phase) Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, ApoB, Total/HDL cholesterol ratio, LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio: ↓
HDL cholesterol, TAG: ↔
9 Qureshi et al. [41] Randomized, parallel 90 hypercholesterolemic subjects (15 F/75 M) 25, 50, 100, 200 mg TRF25 105 days (35 days per phase) Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, ApoB: ↓
HDL cholesterol, ApoA1: ↑
2000 mg tocols-stripped rice bran oil (placebo) TAG: ↔
10 Baliarsingh et al. [36] Randomized, double-blind, crossover 19 T2DM subjects with hyperlipidemia (9 F/10 M) 6 mg TRF/kg body weight 60 days per treatment Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol: ↓
HDL cholesterol, TAG, Total/HDL cholesterol ratio, LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio: ↔
100 mg TRF-free rice bran oil (placebo)
11 Rasool et al. [39] Randomized, double-blind, parallel 36 healthy subjects (0 F/36 M) 80, 160, 320 mg TRF 2 months Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol: ↔
Corn flour (placebo)
12 Rasool et al. [40] Randomized, double-blind, parallel 36 healthy subjects (0 F/36 M) 50, 100, 200 mg TRF 2 months Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol: ↔
Soybean oil (placebo)
13 Zaiden et al. [55] Randomized, double-blind, parallel 19 hypercholesterolemic subjects (6 F/13 M) 120 mg γδ-T3 8 weeks Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol: ↔
1200 mg olive oil (placebo)
TAG: ↓
14 Yuen et al. [44] Randomized, double-blind, parallel 32 hypercholesterolemic subjects (12 F/20 M) 300 mg TRF 6 months Total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, Total/HDL cholesterol ratio, LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio: ↓
300 mg soya bean oil (placebo)
HDL cholesterol, TAG: ↔
  1. ↑ = significant increase; ↓ = significant decrease; ↔ = no significant changes, F = female, M = male, T2DM = Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.