Skip to main content

Table 2 Biological properties of tocotrienols

From: Pharmacological potential of tocotrienols: a review

S.No. Protective activity Tocotrienol type Proposed mechanism of action References
1. Anti-cancer γ-T3 Inhibition of NF-κB, TGF-β and P38 signalling pathways [8, 143]
γ-T3, δ-T3 Induction and potentiation of apoptosis [20, 22, 31, 144, 145]
α-T3, γ-T3, δ-T3 Activation of caspases [31, 34, 61, 145, 146]
γ-T3, δ-T3 Down-regulation of Bcl-2 and cyclin D [61]
α-T3, γ-T3 Suppression of HMGR activity [44]
TRF from palm oil Induction of DNA fragmentation [18]
α-T3, δ-T3 Inhibition of angiogenesis [55]
γ-T3, δ-T3 Inhibition of cell proliferation through cell cycle arrest [25, 33]
γ-T3, δ-T3 Down-regulation of Raf/Erk pathway [27]
2. Anti-diabetic TRF from palm oil and rice bran oil Prevents the formation of advanced glycationendproducts in diabetic rats [72]
α-T3, γ-T3, δ-T3 Reduces hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in diabetic rats [73]
α-T3, γ-T3, δ-T3 Inhibition of NF-κB signalling pathway [75]
α-T3, γ-T3, δ-T3 Inhibition of oxidative-nitrosative stress [120]
α-T3, γ-T3, δ-T3 Inhibition of TNF-α, IL-1β, TGF-β1 and caspase-3 activity [74, 77]
TRF from palm oil and rice bran oil Reduction of glucose-insulin index [79, 80]
α-T3, γ-T3, δ-T3 Increase in insulin sensitivity [59, 81, 83]
3. Anti-inflammatory α-T3, γ-T3, δ-T3 Suppression of NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-8 and iNOS [50, 56, 74, 147]
α-T3, γ-T3, δ-T3 Suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 activity [51, 57]
α-T3, γ-T3, δ-T3 Suppression of STAT-3 signalling pathway [29, 45]
4. Antioxidant α-T3, γ-T3, δ-T3 Increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes [59, 60, 62, 65, 148]
TRF from palm oil and rice bran oil, α-T3, γ-T3, δ-T3 Quenching and scavenging of free radicals [63, 69, 70, 79]
α-T3, γ-T3, δ-T3 Inhibition of lipid peroxidation [64, 66, 68]
5. Immuno-stimulatory α-T3, δ-T3 Induction of antibody production [99, 101]
α-T3, γ-T3, δ-T3 Induction of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-1β production [99, 102]
δ-T3 Suppression of TNF-α [102]
6. Cardio-protective α-T3, γ-T3 Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity [10, 86, 104]
α-T3, γ-T3 Inhibition of expression of cell adhesion molecules [105]
α-T3, γ-T3 Reduction in the levels of blood cholesterol [106, 107]
TRF from palm oil and rice bran oil, δ-T3 Inhibition of lipid peroxidation [41, 80]
γ-T3, δ-T3 Downregulation of c-Src expression [102]
γ-T3, δ-T3 Upregulation of phosphorylation of Akt [102]
TRF from palm oil Reduction in the production of apolipoprotein B, platelet derived factor-4, thromboxane B2 [149]
TRF from palm oil and rice bran oil Downregulation of TGF-β [80]
7. Neuro-protective α-T3 Inhibition of PP 60 (c-Src) kinase activity and phosphorylation of Erk [112]
α-T3, γ-T3 Inhibition of 12-lipoxygenase activity [115, 116]
α-T3, γ-T3, δ-T3 Reduction of oxidative stress [77]
8. Hepato-protective α-T3, γ-T3 Inhibition of lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage [62, 64, 65, 68]
γ-T3, δ-T3 Induction of the expression of CYP450, UGT1A1 nad MDR-protein 1 [135, 136]
TRF from palm oil and rice bran oil, α-T3, γ-T3, δ-T3 Induction of hepatic antioxidant status [59, 137, 138]
9. Nephro-protective TRF from rice bran oil, α-T3, γ-T3 Inhibition of oxidative-nitrosative stress [12, 136, 141]
TRF from palm oil and rice bran oil, α-T3, γ-T3 Downregulating the expression of NF-κB, TGF-β, TNF-α and caspase-3 [75, 79, 80, 136, 139]