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Table 4 Serum test results (n = 21)

From: A low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet to treat type 2 diabetes

Measurement Week 0 Mean (SD) Week 16 Mean (SD) Change % p value*
Hemoglobin A1c, % 7.5 (1.4) 6.3 (1.0) -16.0 <0.001
Glucose, mmol/L 9.08 (4.09) 7.57 (2.63) -16.6 0.04
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 4.61 (1.40) 4.54 (1.26) -1.5 0.7
Triglyceride, mmol/L 2.69 (2.87) 1.57 (1.38) -41.6 0.001
HDL-C, mmol/L 0.92 (0.20) 0.99 (0.22) 7.6 0.08
LDL-C, mmol/L 2.51 (0.64) 2.77 (0.89) 10.4 0.1
Sodium, mmol/L 138.2 (3.4) 140.2 (3.4) 1.4 0.02
Potassium, mmol/L 4.2 (0.4) 4.2 (0.3) 0 0.2
Chloride, mmol/L 101.0 (3.4) 103.8 (2.8) 2.8 0.001
Bicarbonate, mmol/L 28.8 (2.0) 28.2 (2.5) -2.1 0.3
Urea nitrogen, mg/dL 5.90 (1.90) 6.27 (1.81) 6.3 0.3
Creatinine, μmol/L 82.8 (20.4) 79.9 (19.1) -3.5 0.3
Calcium, mmol/L 2.32 (0.11) 2.33 (0.08) 0.4 0.8
Uric acid, μmol/L 403.5 (94.6) 352.1 (85.4) -10.3 0.01
TSH, mIU/L 1.6 (1.0) 1.4 (0.7) -12.7 0.2
Hemoglobin, g/L 142 (11) 141 (10) -0.7 0.8
  1. Legend: TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone, HDL-C = high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C = low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
  2. * By paired t-test or Wilcoxon signed-ranks test.
  3. Serum calcium, TSH, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and HDL-C results are based on n of 20 because one participant did not have these tests at baseline. Uric acid is based on n of 19. LDL-C is based on n of 17 because triglyceride levels were too high at baseline to calculate LDL-C in 3 participants.