Fructose-induced insulin resistance: evidence from euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. Mean glucose levels (A) were slightly but significantly higher in fructose-fed vs. control animals during the last 30 mins of the clamp period (p < 0.01). Mean insulin levels (B) were slightly but not significantly higher in the fructose-fed vs. control hamsters during the clamp period. The glucose infusion rate (Ginf) (C) during the clamp period was significantly lower in fructose-fed vs. control animals (p < 0.01). The calculated insulin sensitivity index (SI – see methods) (D) was also significantly lower in the fructose-fed vs. control hamsters (p = 0.03). Fructose-fed (n = 9), control hamsters (n = 10). (adapted from Taghibiglou et al. ).