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Table 3 Prospective Studies of Flavonoids and Cardiovascular Outcomes

From: Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

Author Year Study type N, Population Follow-up Years Flavonoid Type CHD/MI Incidence CHD/MI Mortality Stroke Mortality Comments:
Hertog [125, 142]*, Keli [127] 1993, 1996 Prospective 552 to 806 Men, Dutch 5, then 10* Total Flavonoids *Update 1997 analysis finds even stronger CHD association [142]
Knekt [131] 1996 Prospective 5133 M+W, Finland 26 Total Flavonoids    
Rimm [123] 1996 Prospective 34789 Men, USA 6 Total Flavonoids Null ↓*   *marginal significance, if past history of CVD
Hertog [133] 1997 Prospective 1900 Men, UK 14 Total Flavonoids Null ↑*   *marginal significance, *milk consumed w/tea
Yochum [130] 1999 Prospective 34492 PostM women, Iowa 10 Total Flavonoids   Null  
Hirvonen [126, 129] 2000, 2001 Prospective 23596 Men, Finland 6.1 Total Flavonoids ↓ MI ↓* Null *suggestive, but non-significant
Arts [143] 2001 Prospective 806 men, Dutch 10 Catechins (Flavonoid)   Null  
Arts [128] 2001 Prospective 34492 PostM women, Iowa 13 Catechins (Flavonoid)    
Geleinjse [122] 2002 Prospective 4807 M+W, Dutch 5.6 Total Tea Flavonoids Null   
Knekt [132] 2002 Prospective 10054 M+W Finland 28 Specific flavonoids   also ↓ type 2 diabetes
Sesso [124] 2003 Prospective 38445 women, USA 6.9 Total Flavonoids Null Null Null  
META-ANALYSIS (updated)** Total Flavonoids → CHD Mortality RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71–0.92)* (extreme tertiles)
  1. **Updated meta-analysis includes: all studies of "total flavonoids" and CHD mortality; comparison of top vs. bottom tertile.