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Table 2 Comparison of Daily Food Intake among Ulaanbaatar (Group A and B), Murun and Japanese Subjects.

From: Investigation of oxidative stress and dietary habits in Mongolian people, compared to Japanese people

        (g/day)
  Ulaanbaatar   Murun    Japanese
  Group A n = 142 Group B n = 114 1) n = 164 2) 3) n = 7,164
Rice 67.2 ± 50.4 50.5 ± 33.1 ** 68.1 ± 55.5   *** 369.4 ± 197.9
   Rice 57.1 ± 42.6 47.7 ± 30.9 * 66.1 ± 54.9   ***  
   Millet 3.4 ± 18.0 1.4 ± 4.8   0.0 ± 0.4 * ***  
   Buckwheat 1.4 ± 3.6 0.6 ± 3.6   0.5 ± 2.2 *   
   Farina 5.3 ± 16.7 0.9 ± 4.2 ** 1.5 ± 6.3 *   
Flour products 338.1 ± 140.0 308.9 ± 142.0   264.1 ± 117.5 *** ** 102.9 ± 114.1
   White bread 102.7 ± 63.0 85.9 ± 61.0 * 69.3 ± 40.6 *** *  
   Black bread 12.2 ± 23.7 2.5 ± 6.7 *** 4.9 ± 11.8 *** *  
   Barley flour 2.5 ± 5.6 4.1 ± 8.6   2.3 ± 6.2    
   Black flour 5.7 ± 24.7 14.8 ± 35.1 * 7.8 ± 27.7    
   Other flour 113.2 ± 72.5 100.9 ± 60.0   119.3 ± 86.3   *  
   Noodle 20.2 ± 27.3 8.9 ± 10.9 *** 19.6 ± 25.7   ***  
   Biscuits 23.4 ± 36.9 23.6 ± 34.4   27.8 ± 44.0    
   Fried cake 37.7 ± 56.5 62.7 ± 77.3 ** 13.0 ± 31.3 *** ***  
   Others 19.5 ± 42.2 5.9 ± 16.5 ** 1.6 ± 7.8 *** *  
Potatoes 94.9 ± 57.0 70.1 ± 50.0 *** 59.1 ± 43.1 ***   57.6 ± 70.7
Vegetables 226.2 ± 184.3 108.1 ± 83.3 *** 72.2 ± 44.0 *** *** 286.4 ± 170.9
   Carrot 27.4 ± 21.8 15.7 ± 15.0 *** 14.3 ± 14.0 ***   
   Turnip 19.1 ± 22.8 13.2 ± 14.1 * 2.5 ± 7.5 *** ***  
   Green onion 13.8 ± 13.4 11.2 ± 6.9   22.7 ± 14.9 *** ***  
   Garlic 1.0 ± 1.7 0.4 ± 1.1 *** 0.3 ± 0.7 ***   
   Cucumber 27.7 ± 39.2 6.0 ± 12.4 *** 4.9 ± 10.5 ***   
   Tomato 30.7 ± 45.4 8.5 ± 20.5 *** 2.8 ± 8.2 *** ***  
   Sugar beet turnip 4.6 ± 15.0 1.1 ± 3.6 * 0.0 ± 0.0 *** ***  
   Spinach 0.2 ± 0.8 0.1 ± 0.8   0.0 ± 0.1 *   
   Lettuce 1.8 ± 8.0 0.3 ± 1.6 * 0.0 ± 0.2 **   
   Pepper 11.8 ± 25.6 2.0 ± 6.7 *** 0.4 ± 1.5 *** *  
   Kelp 0.7 ± 2.4 1.0 ± 9.4   0.1 ± 0.4 **   
   Cabbages 57.5 ± 53.3 39.5 ± 38.5 ** 16.9 ± 20.4 *** ***  
   Mixed salad 24.5 ± 32.3 9.1 ± 14.7 *** 6.5 ± 9.8 ***   
   Green vegetables 1.3 ± 3.7 0.0 ± 0.1 *** 0.8 ± 4.0   *  
   Other vegetables 4.4 ± 18.0 0.1 ± 1.2 * 0.0 ± 0.0 ***   
Eggs 15.5 ± 21.0 4.4 ± 7.8 *** 4.3 ± 8.4 ***   37.3 ± 37.1
Meat & Meat products 193.9 ± 100.3 168.5 ± 79.1 * 122.7 ± 71.1 *** *** 84.3 ± 73.1
   Mutton 87.0 ± 59.0 87.9 ± 48.6   68.0 ± 59.2 *** ***  
   Beef 3.1 ± 11.9 3.2 ± 8.7   22.5 ± 35.3 *** ***  
   Goat 56.4 ± 51.6 47.2 ± 41.8   9.2 ± 24.2 *** ***  
   Chicken 1.7 ± 4.9 0.6 ± 2.6 * 0.2 ± 1.1 ***   
   Pork meat 9.0 ± 21.4 1.4 ± 5.9 *** 0.0 ± 0.4 *** *  
   Stomach 5.5 ± 13.8 11.2 ± 25.3 * 5.3 ± 14.6   *  
   horse 3.5 ± 11.4 5.7 ± 12.1   11.6 ± 28.3 *** *  
   Camel 0.3 ± 2.1 0.3 ± 1.4     *  
   Sausage, Ham 27.1 ± 35.9 10.8 ± 17.1 *** 6.6 ± 14.9 *** *  
   Others 0.9 ± 5.4 0.2 ± 1.4a   0.0 ± 0.2    
Fish 9.4 ± 18.2 4.6 ± 11.4 * 5.5 ± 15.6 *   90.9 ± 81.3
   Fresh fish     4.6 ± 15.5 *** ***  
   Canned products 4.1 ± 9.7 1.7 ± 8.6   0.8 ± 2.3 ***   
   Others 5.4 ± 14.5 3.3 ± 8.4   4.6 ± 15.5 *** ***  
Milk & Dairy products 280.0 ± 237.1 244.0 ± 208.7   430.1 ± 293.4 *** *** 95.7 ± 131.2
   Cow 102.7 ± 132.8 121.8 ± 116.8   198.3 ± 212.5 *** ***  
   Dry milk 0.3 ± 2.3 0.4 ± 1.0   0.0 ± 0.0   ***  
   Others milks 6.6 ± 26.2 2.6 ± 13.9   73.1 ± 152.5 *** ***  
   Cream thin layer 8.9 ± 22.2 7.9 ± 30.3   8.6 ± 13.9    
   Liquid yogurt 76.5 ± 82.2 51.6 ± 60.6 ** 119.1 ± 114.7 *** ***  
   Cheese/Mongol/ 3.7 ± 9.4 2.5 ± 5.5   2.6 ± 5.8    
   Others cheese 2.2 ± 5.6 0.2 ± 0.7 *** 0.1 ± 0.3 ***   
   Dried milk curds 16.2 ± 34.6 10.2 ± 19.5   12.2 ± 17.3    
   Koumiss 62.7 ± 131.0 47.7 ± 111.6   16.6 ± 43.1 *** ***  
   Others 0.2 ± 1.1 0.1 ± 0.5   2.2 ± 20.4    
Fruits 152.5 ± 179.8 59.4 ± 86.1 *** 29.5 ± 71.0 *** *** 101.4 ± 127.3
   Apple 69.0 ± 81.1 34.5 ± 48.4 *** 22.0 ± 55.0 *** *  
   Orange & Lemon 7.3 ± 18.0 2.9 ± 14.1 * 0.7 ± 2.5 ***   
   Grapes 14.3 ± 33.5 6.0 ± 14.2 * 1.6 ± 6.4 *** ***  
   Banana 25.8 ± 50.1 6.5 ± 17.6 *** 0.4 ± 3.0 *** ***  
   Other planted Fruits 20.7 ± 57.9 3.7 ± 10.3 ** 2.4 ± 10.1 ***   
   Wild fruit's 15.9 ± 31.9 7.0 ± 15.6 ** 2.4 ± 16.2 *** *  
Fat 28.0 ± 28.8 33.7 ± 32.0   31.1 ± 21.5    11.2 ± 9.8
   Butter 10.0 ± 19.2 10.6 ± 21.9   12.4 ± 15.5    
   Vegetqable oil 14.1 ± 15.5 13.7 ± 13.5   14.5 ± 12.0    
   Animal oil 1.1 ± 3.3 5.0 ± 10.3 *** 4.1 ± 10.3 ***   
   Melted butter 2.8 ± 7.4 4.3 ± 10.0   0.8 ± 3.1 *** ***  
   Others/marmot 0.0 ± 0.2 0.2 ± 1.9   0.0 ± 0.0    
Sweets 17.1 ± 42.7 14.5 ± 26.7   14.7 ± 23.1    23.9 ± 47.6
   Chocolate 9.0 ± 28.3 5.6 ± 12.3   4.5 ± 8.1    
   Others 8.0 ± 27.2 9.0 ± 18.0   10.5 ± 18.0    
Seasoning 21.5 ± 17.5 18.9 ± 15.6   23.6 ± 16.9   * 103.7 ± 98.7
   Vinegar 2.2 ± 3.8 1.3 ± 2.7 * 0.2 ± 1.0 *** ***  
   Ketchup, Soy sauce 3.8 ± 5.6 2.2 ± 4.0 * 2.1 ± 3.8 ***   
   Sugar 11.6 ± 15.7 9.6 ± 10.9   13.2 ± 14.9   *  
   Salt 3.2 ± 1.9 5.9 ± 9.9 ** 8.4 ± 4.3 *** *  
   Others 0.8 ± 1.7 0.1 ± 0.4 *** 0.2 ± 0.9 ***   
Soft & Alcohol drinks 899.9 ± 406.0 827.0 ± 466.4   957.2 ± 519.2   * 684.3 ± 509.2
   Green tea 329.7 ± 241.7 459.0 ± 337.3 *** 388.5 ± 233.7 *   
   Black tea 133.4 ± 161.4 37.7 ± 85.7 *** 82.8 ± 242.2 * *  
   Coffee 54.3 ± 82.7 23.0 ± 59.4 *** 9.4 ± 25.6 ** ***  
   Soft drinks 87.0 ± 136.3 78.9 ± 127.4   102.0 ± 126.7    
   Juice 50.5 ± 85.4 18.5 ± 34.8 *** 8.8 ± 12.1 *** ***  
   Vodka 8.5 ± 17.4 9.7 ± 20.2   14.5 ± 19.4 * **  
   Beer and vine 31.7 ± 81.4 12.9 ± 30.4 * 5.4 ± 11.2 ** ***  
   Milk tea 203.7 ± 125.2 187.7 ± 245.2   329 ± 270.7 *** ***  
  1. Ulaanbaatar: Investigation was performed in 2002.
  2. Japanese: in The National Health and Nutrition Survay in Japan, 2003, reported by Ministsry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan (ages of the subjects : 20–69 yrs)
  3. 1) : significance between Group A and Group B, 2) : between Group A and Murun, 3) : between Group B and Murun. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** < p0.001.