The effects of octanoate on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, A), PPARγ transcription activity (B) and TAG synthesis (C), and the effects of antioxidants. For (A), 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with octanoate (1 mM) for 24 h with or without N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 20 mM) followed with the measurement of ROS by the DCF assay. Results are representative of at least three independent experiments. For (B), 293A-PPARγ2 cells were co-transfected with the plasmid DNA vector encoding a PPRE(+)-Luc reporter gene or the Rluc control reporter gene. After 24 h, cells incubated with octanoate (1 mM) or a mixture of xanthine/xanthine oxidase (200 μM/30 μU/ml). Cells were harvested after 24 h and analyzed using a dual luciferase assay. For (C), 3T3-L1 adipocytes were infected with recombinant adenovirus encoding GPx1 or its parental virus Ad-5. After 24 h, Cells were incubated with octanoate (1 mM) for another 3 days. TAG synthesis from [U-3H] glucose was measured as described in Figure 1. For (B&C), Results are mean +/- SE, n = 3, *p < 0.05 compared to control.