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Table 5 Plasma lipoproteins, glucose, insulin, folate and homocysteine concentrations during the dietary interventions1

From: Comparison of isocaloric very low carbohydrate/high saturated fat and high carbohydrate/low saturated fat diets on body composition and cardiovascular risk

   Baseline Week 4 Week 8 Week 12 Change 3
Total Cholesterol mmol/L VLCARB 5.92 ± 0.21 5.38 ± 0.20 5.68 ± 0.29 5.82 ± 0.26 -0.09 ± 0.20
  VLF 5.64 ± 0.23 4.83 ± 0.20 4.94 ± 0.23 5.15 ± 0.26 -0.49 ± 0.14
  HUF 6.09 ± 0.23 5.11 ± 0.23 5.27 ± 0.26 5.62 ± 0.24 -0.47 ± 0.15
LDL Cholesterol2 mmol/L VLCARB 3.83 ± 0.18 3.57 ± 0.21 3.89 ± 0.28 4.01 ± 0.26 0.18 ± 0.18a
  VLF 3.65 ± 0.22 3.05 ± 0.18 3.16 ± 0.20 3.25 ± 0.22 -0.40 ± 0.11b
  HUF 4.12 ± 0.24 3.38 ± 0.20 3.54 ± 0.25 3.78 ± 0.22 -0.34 ± 0.14b
ApoB g/L VLCARB 1.01 ± 0.05   0.94 ± 0.05 1.00 ± 0.05 -0.02 ± 0.05
  VLF 0.97 ± 0.05   0.85 ± 0.05 0.89 ± 0.06 -0.07 ± 0.02
  HUF 1.05 ± 0.06   0.93 ± 0.06 0.99 ± 0.05 -0.06 ± 0.02
HDL Cholesterol2 mmol/L VLCARB 1.26 ± 0.05 1.27 ± 0.05 1.26 ± 0.05 1.32 ± 0.05 0.06 ± 0.03a
  VLF 1.31 ± 0.07 1.18 ± 0.05 1.15 ± 0.06 1.25 ± 0.06 -0.06 ± 0.04b
  HUF 1.26 ± 0.05 1.15 ± 0.05 1.15 ± 0.05 1.19 ± 0.04 -0.06 ± 0.03b
Triacylglycerols2 mmol/L VLCARB 1.83 ± 0.19 1.20 ± 0.12 1.16 ± 0.10 1.11 ± 0.10 -0.73 ± 0.12a
  VLF 1.51 ± 0.13 1.31 ± 0.10 1.38 ± 0.12 1.44 ± 0.13 -0.06 ± 0.13b
  HUF 1.56 ± 0.11 1.27 ± 0.12 1.29 ± 0.11 1.42 ± 0.12 -0.15 ± 0.07b
Glucose mmol/L VLCARB 5.3 ± 0.1 5.2 ± 0.1 5.3 ± 0.1 5.3 ± 0.1 -0.1 ± 0.1
  VLF 5.3 ± 0.1 5.1 ± 0.1 5.2 ± 0.1 5.3 ± 0.1 -0.1 ± 0.1
  HUF 5.4 ± 0.1 5.4 ± 0.1 5.2 ± 0.1 5.2 ± 0.1 -0.2 ± 0.1
Insulin2 mU/L VLCARB 10.7 ± 1.1 8.2 ± 0.8 8.1 ± 1.0 7.1 ± 0.8 -3.6 ± 0.5a
  VLF 8.6 ± 0.7 8.2 ± 0.7 7.8 ± 0.8 9.9 ± 1.9 1.3 ± 1.7b,c
  HUF 9.1 ± 0.6 9.0 ± 0.6 7.9 ± 0.6 7.4 ± 0.7 -1.7 ± 0.5a,c
Folate nmol/L VLCARB 23.13 ± 1.46    22.52 ± 1.03 -0.61 ± 0.84
  VLF 23.99 ± 1.42    27.54 ± 1.10 3.54 ± 1.30
  HUF 23.95 ± 1.32    24.83 ± 1.61 0.88 ± 1.82
Homocysteine2 umol/L VLCARB 7.28 ± 0.33    7.76 ± 0.39 0.56 ± 0.27a
  VLF 7.30 ± 0.45    6.80 ± 0.34 -0.50 ± 31b,c
  HUF 7.14 ± 0.32    7.19 ± 0.30 -0.04 ± 0.22a,c
C reactive protein mg/L VLCARB 5.27 ± 0.71   . 4.51 ± 0.60 -0.76 ± 0.56
  VLF 4.52 ± 0.78    3.42 ± 0.70 -1.10 ± 0.50
  HUF 4.52 ± 0.70    4.17 ± 0.71 -0.35 ± 0.71
  1. 1mean ± SEM
  2. VLCARB = very low carbohydrate (n = 24) VLF = very low fat (n = 22) HUF = high unsaturated fat (n = 21)
  3. 2 Significant main effect of diet using repeated measures ANOVA with time as the within subject factor and diet as the between subject factor after adjustment for weight loss as a covariate (P < 0.05)
  4. 3 When significant main effect of diet detected, post hoc analysis was conducted using Tukeys test. Variables with the different superscripts are significantly different from one another (P < 0.05)