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Table 3 Effects of interesterified fats in the lipemic model

From: Effects of stereospecific positioning of fatty acids in triacylglycerol structures in native and randomized fats: a review of their nutritional implications

Fat class Reference Study population Study design Diet Endpoints
Palm olein (sn-1/3 C16:0) vs Betapol™/interesterified palm olein (sn-2 C16:0) Zampelas et al. [121] 16 healthy men
Mean age: 24.8 ± 2.6 y
Mean BMI: 22.7 ± 2.4 kg/m2
Randomized cross-over
2-wk wash-out
6 hr postprandial event
Bleeds at -10, 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300, 360 min
Liquid meal: Meal replacement diet (Carnation Slender) + 40 g test fat + 200 ml water Fat clearance: no difference
Glucose, insulin and GIP: no difference
Palm olein (sn-1/3 C16:0) vs interesterified palm olein (sn-2 C16:0) Yli-Jokipii et al. [19] 11 women
age: 18–45 y
BMI: 18.5–25 kg/m2
Double-blind
Randomized cross-over
4-wk wash-out
6 hr postprandial event
Identical FAC with 32.8% of 16:0
Positional distribution: 16:0 in sn-1/3 for PO and in sn-2 for interesterified PO
Liquid fat load-55 g/m2 BSA
Fat clearance: no difference
IAUC TAG: sn-1/3 C16:0 > sn-2 C16:0
Insulin: sn-1/3 C16:0 <sn-2 C16:0
Chylomicron-TAG structure: similar to diet TAG structure
VLDL-TAG structure: similar for both test meals but dissimilar to diet origin.
Butter vs Fat replacers (Paselli™ vs Simplesse™ vs Olestra™) Mattes [118] 2 men and 15 women
Age: 28.5 ± 1.9 y BMI:26.1 ± 1.4 kg/m2
Randomized crossover
80 g almond evening meal prior to postprandial day
Modified sham feeding (MSF) for oral stimulation
0 h: baseline bleed
+10 min: 50 g safflower oil capsule
+ 20 min: blood drawn
+ every 3 min for 60 min: MSF
+ every 15 min for 60 min: MSF
+ bleeds at 2.5 h, 4.5 h, 6.5 h, 8.5 h after baseline
MSF @ 2 hr after baseline.
Mashed potato alone as control.
Test fat (= 50 g) fed in capsules with mashed potato.
AUC TAG: Butter > potato = Paselli™ = No MSF > Simplesse™ > Olestra
Serum 18:1, apo B48, apo B 100: no treatment effects
Interesterified C18:0-rich sunflower oil vs C18:1-rich HOSO Sanders et al. [47] 16 healthy subjects: 11 men, 5 women
mean age (yr): 25.5
mean BMI (kg/m2): 23.2
Randomized crossover
7 hr postprandial events
0,1,2,4 and 5 hr drawn capillary blood
3 and 7 hr venous blood
Test fat : 90 g vs Low fat = 10 g
Test meal challenge: cottage pie + banana milkshake with
total nutrient value of 5.2 MJ, 37 g protein
Fat-free lunch (1.7 MJ) after 3 hr
FVIIa: sn-2 C18:1 > sn-2 C18:0
Plasma TAG: sn-2 C18:1 > sn-2 C18:0
C18:0-rich cocoa butter (sn-1/3 C18:0) vs C18:1-rich HOSO (sn-2 C18:1) vs randomized C18:0-rich Salatrim™ (sn-2 C18:0) Sanders et al. [48] 17 men and 18 women
mean age (yr): men 51.3; women 46.2
mean BMI (kg/m2): men 25.9 and women 26.5
Randomized crossover
3 wk feeding per phase
with 1 wk wash-out
0, 3 and 6 hr postprandial events
Test fat:30 g
Test meal: muffin + strawberry milkshake
Total nutrient value: 50 g fat, 17 g protein, 48 g carbohydrate
FVIIa: sn-1/3 C18:0 = sn-2 C18:1 > sn-2 C18:0
Plasma TAG: sn-1/3 C18:0 = sn-2 C18:1> sn-2 C18:0
C18:0 rich cocoa butter (sn-1/3 C18:0) vs
interesterified cocoa butter (sn-2 C18:0)
Sanders et al. [126] 17 healthy males
mean age: 38.2 yr
mean BMI: 24.5 kg/m2
Randomized crossover
3 wk feeding per phase
≥ 1 wk wash-out
1,2,4 and 5 h postprandial events
Test meal: milkshake + muffin
Nutrient value: 3.13 MJ, 16 g protein+ 50 g carbohydrate + 50 g test fat
3 h post-meal: fruit and low-fat yoghurt
FVIIa: sn-1/3 C18:0 <sn-2 C18:0
Plasma TAG: sn-1/3 C18:0 > sn-2 C18:0
C18:0 rich cocoa butter (sn-1/3 C18:0) vs
Interesterified C18:0-rich sunflower oil (sn-2 C18:0)
Berry & Sanders [128] 6 healthy males
age: 20–40 yr
Randomized crossover
6 hr postprandial event
Test fat: 50 g FVIIa: sn-1/3 C18:0 <sn-2 C18:0
Plasma TAG: sn-1/3 C18:0 > sn-2 C18:0
Unrandomized shea butter (sn-1/3 C18:0) vs randomized shea butter (sn-2 C18:0) Berry & Sanders [22] 16 healthy males Randomized crossover trial Test fat: 50 g
Test meal: muffins
FVIIa: sn-1/3 C18:0 = sn-2 C18:0
Plasma TAG: sn-1/3 C18:0 = sn-2 C18:0
Unrandomized shea butter (sn-1/3 C18:0) vs C18:1-rich HOSO (sn-2 C18:1) Berry & Sanders [129] 13 healthy males
age: 20–43 yr
Randomized crossover trial
6 hr postprandial event
Test fat: 50 g FVIIa: sn-2 C18:1 > sn-1/3 C18:0
Plasma TAG: sn-2 C18:1 > sn-1/3 C18:0
Interesterified fatty acids
sn-2 C18:0 (n = 16)
sn-2 C16:0 (n = 16)
sn-2 C18:2 (n = 16)
sn-2 C18:1 (n = 16)
sn-2 C14:0+C16:0 (n = 8)
sn-2 trans C18:1(n = 15)
Tholstrup et al. [131] 16 healthy men
age: 21 to 28 yr
BMI: 19.5 to 28.1 kg/m2
Crossover design
≥ 3 wk wash-out
2 days familiarization
Total fat energy-50.6%
SFA:PUFA:MUFA = 40:41:19
Interesterified fatty acids targeted at ≈ 43% by wt
Single meal fat-loading:1 g/kg BW
Fat clearance: C18:0 = C16:0 < C16:0+C14:0 <cis and trans C18:1 < C18:2
LpL: C18:0 = C16:0 = C16:0+C14:0 <cis C18:1 <trans C18:1 < C18:2
CETP: ↑ for trans C18:1 after 4 h; ↓ for C18:0 and C18:2 until 4 h; no change for the rest.