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Table 1 Studies Which Support the Efficacy of HMB supplementation in Varying Populations

From: Effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on exercise performance and body composition across varying levels of age, sex, and training experience: A review

Experiment Participants Dosage/Duration Biochemistry Performance Body composition
Nissen et al. [36] Untrained 0, 1.5, or 3 g/day for 7 weeks CK & 3-MH decreased, dose dependent Greater Total weight lifted, dose dependent Greater LBM, dose dependent
Van Someren et al. [32, 37] Untrained 3 grams of HMB and .3 grams of KIC, prior to a single bout eccentric exercise CK down Greater 1-RM bicep curl and ROM, lower DOMS NR
Jowko et al. [18] 40 M, untrained P, 3 gram HMB, HMB &creatine, or creatine Only HMB lowered CK, urine urea nitrogen, and plasma urea HMB & creatine additive effect on weight lifted HMB & creatine additive effect on LBM
Gallagher et al. [19, 93] 37 M, untrained P, 38 or 76 mg/kg for 8 weeks CK, no effect on lipid profile, immune system, or renal function Greater Isokinetic & Isometric torque, independent of dose. Greater LBM, no effect on FML, independent of dose
Nissen et al. [28] 40 M, trained and untrained P or 3 g/day for 4 weeks NR Greater bench press 1-RM Increase in LBM and FML
Panton et al. [38] 36 F, 39 M, varying training experiences P or 3 g/d for 4 weeks NR Greater upper body strength Greater LBM & FML.
Thomson [39] 34 experienced weight lifters P or 3 g/d for 9 weeks NR Greater leg extension strength NR
Neighbors et al. [40] Experienced collegiate football players P or 3 g/d NR NR Greater LBM and FML
Nissen & Sharp [41] Meta-analysis, 9 studies P or 3 g/day NR .28% greater weekly strength 1.4% greater weekly LBM
Nissen et al. [63] 37 F P or 3 g/day for 4 weeks No effect Greater Bench Press 1-RM Greater LBM
Vukovich and Geri [42], Vukovich and Adams [43] 8 experienced cyclists 3 g/day HMB, leucine, or P, 2 weeks for each supplement. NR HMB increased time to reach VO2 peak, and VO2 at OBLA. NR
Knitter et al. [17] 16 F & M, experienced long distance runners P or 3 g/day prior to 20 KM run. Lower LDH and CK. NR NR
Byrd et al. [44] 28 active M P or 3/g HMB or creatine daily prior to downhill run NR HMB lowered soreness. NR
Vukovich et al. [29] 31 untrained M & F P or 3 g/day for 8 weeks NR Greater upper and lower body strength Greater FML, no effect on LBM.
Vukovich et al. [46] 31 elderly M & F P or 3 g/day for 8 weeks NR Greater Leg strength Greater FML, trend for LBM (P > .06)
Flakoll et al. [45] 50 elderly F P or 2 g of HMB, 5 g of arginine, and 1.5 g of lysine daily. Greater protein synthesis Greater functional mobility, leg and handgrip strength. Trend FML (P=.08)
Panton et al. [47] 35 elderly M & F P or HMB for 8 weeks NR Greater Functional mobility No effect
Soares et al. [48] Adult mice HMB prior to hind limb immobilization NR NR Less fiber damage, greater fiber diameter.
Cohen [51] Dieting humans, in negative energy balance 3 g/day of HMB NR NR Greater maintenance LBM
Coelho and Carvalho [52] 12 elderly M 3 g/day of HMB for 4 weeks Lower LDL-C Greater weight lifting strength Greater LBM
  1. M = Male; F = Female; LBM = Lean body mass; P = Placebo; FML = Fat mass lost; CK = Creatine kinase; LDL-C = Low density lipoprotein cholesterol; NR = Not reported; 3-MH = 3-methylhistidine.