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Table 4 Changes in body composition from PRE to POST ( x ¯ ± SE).

From: Minimal nutrition intervention with high-protein/low-carbohydrate and low-fat, nutrient-dense food supplement improves body composition and exercise benefits in overweight adults: A randomized controlled trial

  PRE POST CHANGE
Body Mass (kg)*    
   CON 78.2 ± 5.0 77.9 ± 5.0 -0.3 ± 0.5
   EX 82.3 ± 4.1 82.0 ± 4.0 -0.3 ± 0.5
   EXFS 84.7 ± 5.5 82.9 ± 5.2 -1.8 ± 1.0
Fat Mass (kg)**    
   CON 22.6 ± 2.0 22.2 ± 2.0 -0.4 ± 0.4
   EX 23.9 ± 2.2 22.8 ± 2.9 -1.1 ± 0.4a
   EXFS 28.9 ± 2.3 26.2 ± 2.3 -2.7 ± 0.4a,b,c
% Body Fat**    
   CON 28.9 ± 2.4 28.5 ± 2.6 -0.4 ± 0.4
   EX 29.0 ± 2.2 27.8 ± 2.3 -1.2 ± 0.4a
   EXFS 34.1 ± 1.3 31.6 ± 1.4 -2.5 ± 0.4a,b,c
Fat-Free Mass (kg)*    
   CON 55.6 ± 4.3 55.7 ± 4.4 0.10 ± 0.3
   EX 58.4 ± 3.5 59.2 ± 3.7 0.80 ± 0.6
   EXFS 55.8 ± 3.5 56.7 ± 3.4 0.90 ± 0.5
Muscle Mass (kg)**    
   CON 26.8 ± 2.5 26.8 ± 2.6 0.0 ± 0.1
   EX 28.1 ± 2.2 28.4 ± 2.3 0.3 ± 0.2
   EXFS 26.5 ± 2.1 27.1 ± 2.1 0.6 ± 0.1a,b
  1. CON = control; EX = exercise only; EXFS = exercise + food supplement. *Main effect for time (p ≤ 0.05); **Group-by-Time interaction (p ≤ 0.05). aDifferent from PRE (p ≤ 0.017); bDifferent from CON (p ≤ 0.05); cDifferent from EX (p ≤ 0.05).