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Table 6 Changes in cardiorespiratory fitness from PRE to POST ( x ¯ ± SE).

From: Minimal nutrition intervention with high-protein/low-carbohydrate and low-fat, nutrient-dense food supplement improves body composition and exercise benefits in overweight adults: A randomized controlled trial

  PRE POST CHANGE
VO2max (ml·kg-1·min-1)**    
   CON 36.8 ± 2.1 36.9 ± 2.0 0.1 ± 0.5
   EX 35.7 ± 2.7 37.5 ± 2.4 1.8 ± 0.6a
   EXFS 32.9 ± 1.9 35.5 ± 1.8 2.6 ± 0.4a
VO2 (L·min-1)*    
   CON 2.87 ± 0.25 2.88 ± 0.25 0.01 ± 0.01
   EX 2.87 ± 0.23 3.00 ± 0.82 0.13 ± 0.05
   EXFS 2.76 ± 0.20 2.93 ± 0.21 0.17 ± 0.04a
Minute Ventilation (L·min-1)*    
   CON 79.4 ± 7.6 79.0 ± 6.0 0.4 ± 2.5
   EX 83.3 ± 5.0 89.1 ± 5.5 5.8 ± 2.4a
   EXFS 83.7 ± 4.7 88.0 ± 5.1 4.3 ± 1.4a
Maximum Heart Rate (bpm)*    
   CON 192.1 ± 2.7 190.9 ± 2.0 -1.2 ± 1.8
   EX 190.6 ± 2.6 188.6 ± 2.8 -2.0 ± 1.3
   EXFS 187.0 ± 6.2 184.6 ± 6.0 -2.4 ± 1.5
Time-to-Exhaustion (sec)**    
   CON 643.9 ± 44.8 653.0 ± 46.4 9.1 ± 13.4
   EX 681.8 ± 62.0 748.6 ± 65.4 66.8 ± 13.8a,b
   EXFS 559.9 ± 46.8 678.6 ± 50.1 118.7 ± 14.3a,b,c
  1. Cardiorespiratory fitness, as assessed by graded treadmill test to exhaustion. CON = control; EX = exercise only; EXFS = exercise + food supplement. *Main effect for time (p ≤ 0.05); **Group-by-Time interaction (p ≤ 0.05). aDifferent from PRE (p ≤ 0.017). bDifferent from CON (p ≤ 0.05). cDifferent from EX (p ≤ 0.05).