HOMA, Fasting Glucose, and Fasting Insulin. HOMA, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin for female (a.) and male (b.) control rats (CON); rats whose dams consumed low-protein diets while pregnant and nursing (F1), offspring of F1 rats (F2); and offspring of F2 rats (F3.1 and F3.2). Control rat dams consumed adequate diets ad libitum during pregnancy and while nursing, and control offspring consumed adequate diets ad libitum postweaning. All F1, F2 and F3 offspring were fed nutritionally adequate but energy-restricted diets (70% of control ad libitum consumption) postweaning with the exception of the F3.2 offspring that were fed the control diet ad libitum. Bars with different letters differ significantly (p < 0.05, significant univariate ANOVA with LSD post-hoc analysis).