Influence of the restricted ketogenic diet with or without 2-DG on total energy intake (A), body weight (B), tumor growth (C), and on cumulative survival (D) in mice bearing the orthotopically implanted CT-2A malignant astrocytoma. All mice were fed the standard high carbohydrate rodent diet in UR amounts for the first 3 days after tumor implantation prior to their separation into one of four diet groups (n = 5–11 mice/group) fed either SD-UR or a KD-R with or without 2-DG (25 mg/kg) for 10 days. The four groups were matched for body weight. 2-DG was initiated 6 days after tumor implantation and was continued for 7 days (B &C). As shown in (B), the feeding paradigm for the KD-R and KD-R+2-DG groups was designed to reduce body weights by ~20% relative to values recorded before the diet was initiated (3 days after tumor implantation). The average total energy intakes in (A) represent the number of kcals consumed by the indicated group over the dietary treatment period (day 3 to day 13). All values are expressed as the mean ± S.E.M. In (A &C), average values for the indicated group are significantly less than the average value for the SD-UR group at ** P < 0.01. The mean value for the KD-R+2DG group is significantly lower than the mean value for the KD-R group at † P < 0.01. No significant differences were observed between the SD-UR and SD-UR+2DG groups throughout the study. For (D), the number of tumor-bearing mice that were alive in each group at the conclusion of the study is listed as a ratio above each solid vertical bar (e.g. the "6/11" indicates that 6 of the 11 original mice were alive at the end of the study in the associated group).