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Table 2 Anthropometric, body mass, body composition and energy expenditure changes for the high energy, high carbohydrate diet + exercise (HED; 2,600: 55:15:30), no diet + exercise (ND), very low carbohydrate, high protein diet + exercise (VLCHP: 1,200; 63:7:30), low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet + exercise (LCMP: 1,200; 50:20:30), high carbohydrate, low protein diet + exercise (HCLP: 1,200; 55:15:30).

From: Effects of a popular exercise and weight loss program on weight loss, body composition, energy expenditure and health in obese women

     P-value
Variable Group Mean 14 Week Delta Within Group G × T
Waist (cm) HED -2.8 (-4.3, -1.2)a <0.001 <0.05
  ND -5.1 (-8.8, -1.4)a <0.05  
  VLCHP -6.3 (-8.7, -3.8)a <0.001  
  LCMP -6.7 (-8.7, -4.8)a <0.001  
  HCLP -5.7 (-7.5, -3.9)a <0.05  
  CON 8.2 (+0.3, +16.1) 0.16  
Body Mass (kg) HED -1.3 (-3.2, +0.7)c 0.26 <0.001
  ND -0.2 (-1.0, +0.6) 0.51  
  VLCHP -5.6 (- 7.0, -4.3)a, b <0.001  
  LCMP -6.5 (-10.4, -2.6)a, b <0.01  
  HCLP -4.0 (-5.0, -3.0)a, b <0.001  
  CON 1.4 (-0.4, +3.2) 0.28  
DXA Fat-Free Mass (kg) HED -0.1 (-0.7, +0.4) 0.36 <0.05
  ND 0.1 (-0.6, +0.7) 0.81  
  VLCHP -1.3 (-1.8, -0.7) <0.001  
  LCMP -1.1 (-1.6, -0.6) <0.001  
  HCLP -0.6 (-1.1, -0.1) <0.001  
  CON 0.5 (-0.8, +1.8) 0.62  
DXA Fat Mass (kg) HED -0.9 (-2.7, +0.9)d 0.38 <0.001
  ND -0.8 (-1.6, +0.1) 0.09  
  VLCHP -4.2 (-5.2, -3.2)a, b <0.001  
  LCMP -2.9 (-4.0, -1.9)a, b <0.001  
  HCLP -2.9 (-3.8, -2.1)a, b <0.001  
  CON 0.3 (-1.8, +2.4) 0.85  
DXA % Fat (%) HED -0.6 (-1.8, +0.6) 0.42 0.21
  ND -0.6 (-1.3+0.2) 0.19  
  VLCHP -2.0 (-2.7, -1.3) <0.005  
  LCMP -1.7 (-2.4, -0.9) <0.001  
  HCLP -2.0 (-2.6, -1.4) <0.001  
  CON 0.0 (-1.5, +1.5) 0.96  
REE (kcals·d-1) HED 413 (+264, +562) <0.001 0.45
  ND 83 (-5, +135)e 0.08  
  VLCHP -37 (-84, +42)e 0.06  
  LCMP 18 (-58, +94)e 0.52  
  HCLP 90 (+22, +160)d, e <0.05  
  CON -30 (-105, +63)e 0.91  
  1. Dietary intake is presented as energy (i.e. calories) intake: % carbohydrate: protein: fat. All data is presented as the mean plus the 95% confidence intervals for the delta response at week 14. Main effects for time are provided as within-group P-values. Group × time interaction effects are provided as GxT P-values. Significance level was set at 0.05.
  2. aDifferent than CON, P < 0.05, bDifferent from ND, P < 0.05, cDifferent from LCMP, P < 0.05, dDifferent than VLCHP, P < 0.05, eDifferent from HED, P < 0.05.