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Table 1 Food groups used in the dietary pattern analysis: the NHANES III 1

From: Serum leptin concentrations are not related to dietary patterns but are related to sex, age, body mass index, serum triacylglycerol, serum insulin, and plasma glucose in the US population

Food Groups2 Foods from the Food Frequency Questionnaire3
Low-fat dairy 1% milk, 2% milk, skim milk, and yogurt/frozen; Swiss, cheddar, and cottage cheeses
High-fat dairy Chocolate milk, whole milk, ice cream, ice milk, milk shakes, and cheese dishes
Pizza/lasagna Pizza, calzone, and lasagna
Soups Stew or soup with vegetables
Processed meats Bacon, sausage, lunch meats, liver, and organ meats
Meats Beef, hamburger, steaks, pork, and ham
Fish and other sea food Shrimp, clams, oysters, and lobster; Fish: fillets, sticks, and tuna
Poultry Chicken (all types)
Egg Scrambled, fried, and omelettes
Fruit/fruit juices Fruits: oranges, grape fruit, cantaloupe, honey dew, water melon, peaches, nectarines, apricots, mango, apples, bananas, pears, berries, grapes, and strawberries; Juices: Orange, grapefruit, tangerine, grape, apple, and cranberry
Starchy vegetables White potatoes, French fries, potato salad, sweet potatoes, yams, squash, and carrots
Tomatoes Tomatoes including fresh and stewed tomatoes, tomato juice, and salsa
Cruciferous and green vegetables Broccoli, Brussel sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage, coleslaw, sauerkraut, spinach, greens, kale, and tossed salad
Other vegetables Hot red chili peppers, peppers (green, red, and yellow), green beans, corn, peas, mushrooms, and zucchini
Legumes Beans, lentils, kidney, pinto, refried, black, and baked
Nuts Peanuts, peanut butter, nuts, and seeds
Cereal Cooked, hot cereals, oatmeal, cream of wheat/rice, grits, and cold breakfast cereals
Whole grains Dark breads, whole wheat, and rye
Refined grains White bread, rolls, English muffins, crackers, corn bread, corn muffins, corn/flour tortillas, and rice
Snacks and sweets Salted snacks, potato chips, pretzels, popcorn, cakes, cookies, brownies, pies, doughnuts, chocolate candies, and fudge
Fats Oil and vinegar, mayonnaise, and salad dressings
High energy drinks Hi-C®, Tang®, Hawaiian Punch®, regular colas, and sodas
Low-energy drinks Diet colas/sodas and crystal light
Coffee/tea Coffee and tea
Alcohol Beer, wine, and hard liquor
  1. 1 n = 4009; weighted n = 99,249,927
  2. 2 Foods consumed by survey participants were categorized into 25 food groups.
  3. 3 Food intake data were collected by using an 80-item qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaire.