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Table 2 Characteristics of study population by dietary patterns in the NHANES III 1

From: Serum leptin concentrations are not related to dietary patterns but are related to sex, age, body mass index, serum triacylglycerol, serum insulin, and plasma glucose in the US population

  Dietary Pattern  
Characteristic Vegetable, Fruit, and Lean Meat
(n = 1482)
Western
(n = 1503)
Mixed
(n = 1024)
P value 2
Sex (n, %)     < 0.0001
   Men 617 (41.6) 835 (55.6) 455 (44.4)  
   Women 865 (58.4) 668 (44.4) 569 (55.6)  
Race-ethnicity (n, %)     < 0.0001
   Non-Hispanic white 583 (39.3) 616 (41.0) 708 (69.1)  
   Non-Hispanic black 303 (20.5) 521 (34.7) 252 (24.6)  
   Mexican American 596 (40.2) 366 (24.3) 64 (6.3)  
Cigarettes smoked (n, %) 3     < 0.0001
   Yes 635 (42.8) 836 (55.6) 509 (49.7)  
   No 847 (57.2) 667 (44.4) 515 (50.3)  
Age (y) 4 46.2 ± 1.1 5 38.6 ± 0.7 46.6 ± 0.9 5 < 0.0001
Alcohol intake (drinks/mo) 4,6 7.8 ± 0.5 10.8 ± 1.3 8.0 ± 0.7 0.09
Energy intake (kcal) 4 2022 ± 40 5,7 2553 ± 57 7 2253 ± 45 5 < 0.0001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 4 26.4 ± 0.2 26.5 ± 0.3 26.5 ± 0.2 0.98
Serum triacylglycerol (mmol/L) 4 1.49 ± 0.06 1.51 ± 0.04 1.49 ± 0.04 0.83
Plasma glucose (mmol/L) 4 5.42 ± 0.04 5.32 ± 0.03 5.37 ± 0.03 0.11
Serum insulin (pmol/L) 4 61.7 ± 2.5 63.7 ± 2.5 58.8 ± 1.8 0.11
  1. 1 n = 4009; weighted n = 99,249,927.
  2. 2 Chi-square test was used for categorical variables (sex, race-ethnicity, and cigarettes smoked) and analysis of variance was used for continuous variables (age, alcohol intake, energy intake, body mass index, serum triacylglycerol, plasma glucose, and serum insulin).
  3. 3 Persons who smoked 100+ cigarettes prior to the survey.
  4. 4 Geometric mean ± standard error.
  5. 5 Significantly different from Western dietary group. Bonferroni correction, P < 0.0167.
  6. 6 One drink of alcohol is defined as 360 mL of beer, 120 mL of wine, or 30 mL of hard liquor. Total alcohol intake was computed by summing self-reported consumption of number of drinks of beer, wine, and hard liquor.
  7. 7 Significantly different from Mixed dietary group. Bonferroni correction, P < 0.0167.