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Table 4 Association between serum leptin concentrations and dietary patterns, demographic characteristics, and lifestyle and health factors in the NHANES III 1

From: Serum leptin concentrations are not related to dietary patterns but are related to sex, age, body mass index, serum triacylglycerol, serum insulin, and plasma glucose in the US population

Variable β2 SE P value 3
Dietary Patterns    0.22
   Vegetable, Fruit, Lean Meat -0.042 0.02  
   Western -0.008 0.03  
   Mixed (referent category) -- --  
Sex    < 0.0001
   Men -1.052 0.03  
   Women (referent category) --   
Race-ethnicity    0.66
   Non-Hispanic white 0.01 0.03  
   Non-Hispanic black -0.017 0.03  
   Mexican American (referent category) -- --  
Cigarettes smoked 4    0.20
   Yes -0.035 0.03  
   No (referent category) -- --  
Age (y) 0.006 0.001 < 0.0001
Energy intake (kcal) < -0.0001 < 0.001 0.42
Alcohol intake (drinks/mo) 5 -0.0002 0.001 0.73
Body mass index (kg/m2) 0.082 0.001 < 0.0001
Serum triacylglycerol (mmol/L) 0.034 0.01 0.0022
Plasma glucose (mmol/L) -0.024 0.01 0.0146
Serum insulin (pmol/L) 0.003 0.001 < 0.0001
  1. 1 n = 4009; weighted n = 99,249,927; Analysis was performed on log leptin concentrations because of non-normality distribution.
  2. 2 Log regression coefficients. Indicates the magnitude of relationship between serum leptin concentrations and dietary patterns, demographic characteristics, or lifestyle and health factors. A positive coefficient indicates direct relationship and a negative coefficient indicates inverse relationship between serum leptin and aforementioned variables.
  3. 3 Significance in the analysis of covariance. Dietary patterns, sex, race-ethnicity, and smoking were used as categorical variables; age, alcohol and energy intakes, BMI, serum triacylglycerol, plasma glucose, and serum insulin were used as continuous variables. Multivariate analysis was adjusted for these variables simultaneously.
  4. 4 Persons who smoked 100+ cigarettes prior to the survey.
  5. 5 One drink of alcohol is defined as 360 mL of beer, 120 mL of wine, or 30 mL of hard liquor. Total alcohol intake was computed by summing self-reported consumption of number of drinks of beer, wine, and hard liquor.