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Table 2 Demographic, lifestyle, and clinical characteristics of males and females by tertile of Mediterranean diet score

From: Adherence to the Mediterranean diet moderates the association of aminotransferases with the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome; the ATTICA study

  Mediterranean Diet score
Males, n = 1514 Low Moderate High p
Subjects, n 767 587 160  
Age, years 53 ± 12 40 ± 8 29 ± 9 < 0.001
Physical inactivity (n), % (314) 41 (235) 40 (80) 50 0.059
Current smoking (n), % (330) 43 (299) 51 (80) 50 0.005
Metabolic syndrome (n), % 36 16 8 <0.001
Hypertension (n), % (368) 48 (164) 28 (19) 12 < 0.001
Hypercholesterolemia (n), % (360) 47 (246) 42 (29) 18 < 0.001
Diabetes (n), % (100) 13 (17) 3 (2) 1 < 0.001
Overweight (n), % (409) 53 (358) 61 (27) 24 < 0.001
Obesity (n), % (272) 36 (28) 5 (1) 1 < 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 29 ± 4 26 ± 2 23 ± 2 < 0.001
γ – GT (IU/L) 27 ± 14 27 ± 9 19 ± 7 0.059
AST (IU/L) 27 ± 13 27 ± 9 25 ± 12 0.74
ALT (IU/L) 24 ± 14 25 ± 12 21 ± 13 0.45
AST/ALT ratio 1.28 ± 0.45 1.17 ± 0.43 1.33 ± 0.46 0.19
Females Low Moderate High p
Subjects, n 246 428 854  
Age, years 60 ± 13 53 ± 10 36 ± 10 < 0.001
Physical inactivity (n), % (79) 32 (150) 35 (359) 42 0.08
Current smoking (n), % (61) 25 (163) 38 (376) 44 < 0.001
Metabolic syndrome (n), % 38 24 4 <0.001
Hypertension, (n), % (125) 51 (154) 36 (77) 9 < 0.001
Hypercholesterolemia (n),% (130) 53 (210) 49 (25) 3 < 0.001
Diabetes (n), % (44) 18 (38) 9 (8) 1 < 0.001
Overweight (n), % (84) 34 (247) 58 (131) 15 < 0.001
Obesity (n), % (139) 57 (89) 21 (8) 1 < 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 31 ± 5 27 ± 3 22 ± 2 < 0.001
γ – GT (IU/L) 20 ± 10 20 ± 18 16 ± 8 0.005
AST (IU/L) 24 ± 9 25 ± 13 22 ± 9 0.01
ALT (IU/L) 19 ± 8 20 ± 14 16 ± 8 0.001
AST/ALT ratio 1.31 ± 0.45 1.39 ± 0.71 1.44 ± 0.53 0.29
  1. Continuous variables are presented as mean values ± standard deviation, while categorical variables are presented as absolute number and frequencies.