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Table 1 Major biochemical actions of CLA on lipid metabolism.

From: Conjugated linoleic acids as functional food: an insight into their health benefits

Biochemical action Experimental evidence Ref
Preadipocyte proliferation Inhibited proliferation [49]
Preadipocyte differentiation Human preadipocytes do not differentiate in the absence of a PPARγ ligand like CLA [25]
Fatty acid oxidation Carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity increased by dietary CLA [28, 50]
Adipose tissue lipid synthesis Inhibition of de novo lipogenesis through down regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase [51]
Lipolysis Increased lipolysis and decreased fat [52]
Energy expenditure Increased oxygen consumption and energy expenditure by 10-CLA [44]
Stearoyl-CoA desaturase Inhibition at protein or activity level, by post-translational modification [15]
Plasma leptin Decrease in serum leptin, a hormone regulating fat level [26, 53]
Apotopsis Induce apoptosis in adipocytes [49]
Tumor necrosis factor-α Increased expression of TNFα and low fat [54]