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Table 3 Relationship between intakes of carbohydrate sugar subgroups and cardiometabolic risk factors, assessed using five multiple linear regression models (n = 95).

From: Carbohydrate intake and cardiometabolic risk factors in high BMI African American children

  Model 1 Model 2 Model 3    
  Total CHO Non sugar CHO Sugars Non sugar CHO Sugars    
      Added sugars Others    
TG 0.357* -0.036 0.355** 0.007 0.408** -0.062    
VLDL-C 0.460** 0.078 0.379** 0.090 0.335** 0.097    
IDL-C 0.497** 0.109 0.394** 0.085 0.239# 0.277*    
HDL-C -0.131 -0.017 -0.111 -0.021 -0.100 -0.025    
ISI-FFA -0.273* -0.048 -0.224* -0.020 -0.096 -0.222*    
HOMA-IR 0.345** 0.192 0.200# 0.220 0.241* -0.054    
  Model 4 Model 5
  Non-sugar CHO Sugar Source Non-sugar CHO Sugar Source
   Beverage sugars Other   Candy/soda group 1 Cereal group 2 Fruit group 3 Dairy group 4 Other
TG 0.004 0.286* 0.148 0.153 0.329** -0.069 -0.048 0.239* 0.009
VLDL-C 0.146 0.350** 0.108 0.237 0.294* -0.074 0.090 0.239* 0.054
IDL-C 0.142 0.299* 0.185 0.251 0.275* -0.062 0.201# 0.270* 0.239#
HDL-C -0.041 -0.111 -0.022 -0.154 -0.020 0.017 0.056 -0.316** -0.141
ISI-FFA -0.038 -0.122 -0.160 -0.173 -0.069 0.116 -0.198* -0.266** -0.074
HOMA 0.187 0.116 0.135 0.283# 0.167# -0.050 0.027 0.115 -0.013
  1. *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, *p < 0.05, # p = 0.05-0.10. In addition to the variables shown for each model, other variables entered simultaneously into each model included gender, pubertal stage, waist circumference, protein intake and fat intake. Values presented are standardized regression coefficients and level of significance.
  2. 1 Candy, confections, fruit flavored drinks, sodas, syrups (USDA food code 90 Millions).
  3. 2 Breakfast cereals, cakes, cookies, crackers and pastries (USDA food code 50 Millions).
  4. 3 Fruit products including fresh, dried and preserved fruit; fruit juice; non-dairy fruit smoothies (USDA food code 60 Millions).
  5. 4 Dairy including unflavored fluid milk, cream, cheese, flavored milk, milkshakes, ice cream, yogurt, and milk puddings (USDA food code 10 Millions).