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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants by amount of coffee consumption at the 1st investigation of the PIVUS cohorta

From: Coffee consumption and CYP1A2 genotype in relation to bone mineral density of the proximal femur in elderly men and women: a cohort study

  Men (n = 359) Women (n = 358)
Characteristics Categories of coffee consumption (cups b /day) Categories of coffee consumption (cups/day)
  0-2 3 4 >4 0-2 3 4 >4
Number of persons 82 81 85 111 92 110 76 80
Mean age at baseline (years) 72.0 ± 0.8 71.8 ± 0.9 71.8 ± 0.8 72.0 ± 0.8 72.1 ± 0.9 72.1 ± 0.9 72.1 ± 0.8 72.2 ± 0.9
Calcium intake (mg/day) 850 ± 323 949 ± 306 1059 ± 392 1118 ± 365 852 ± 260 912 ± 263 962 ± 267 1011 ± 319
Vitamin D intake (μg/day) 5.7 ± 2.1 5.9 ± 2.0 6.4 ± 2.2 7.1 ± 2.9 5.0 ± 1.8 5.1 ± 1.6 5.8 ± 1.8 5.5 ± 2.1
Vitamin A intake (mg/day) 0.78 ± 0.53 1.0 ± 0.70 0.95 ± 0.64 1.10 ± 0.76 0.78 ± 0.69 0.81 ± 0.53 0.91 ± 0.65 0.84 ± 0.57
Energy intake (kcal/day) 1830 ± 452 1953 ± 421 2102 ± 510 2308 ± 591 1557 ± 404 1698 ± 352 1812 ± 370 1834 ± 457
Weight (kg) 83.9 ± 11.9 80.6 ± 10.3 84.6 ± 14.8 82.8 ± 12.8 68.7 ± 14.5 70.0 ± 13.0 70.2 ± 13.3 69.2 ± 11.8
Height (cm) 175.4 ± 6.0 175.6 ± 5.7 176.3 ± 6.6 175.3 ± 6.8 161.4 ± 6.0 161.3 ± 5.5 161.6 ± 5.2 161.7 ± 5.7
Body mass index (kg/m2) 27.3 ± 3.7 26.2 ± 3.3 27.2 ± 4.2 26.9 ± 3.7 26.4 ± 5.5 26.9 ± 4.4 26.9 ± 5.1 26.5 ± 4.4
Alcohol use (g/day) 11.0 ± 10.0 7.7 ± 7.5 9.5 ± 9.7 8.3 ± 8.7 5.0 ± 5.7 4.1 ± 4.6 4.8 ± 4.8 4.1 ± 4.7
Smoking status         
Never 34/82 (41) 42/81 (52) 32/85 (38) 49/111 (44) 49/92 (53) 58/110 (53) 48/76 (63) 37/80 (46)
Current 3/82 (4) 6/81 (7) 5/85 (6) 15/111 (14) 10/92 (11) 10/110 (9) 7/76 (9) 14/80 (18)
Former 45/82 (55) 33/81 (41) 48/85 (56) 46/111 (41) 33/92 (36) 42/110 (32) 21/76 (28) 29/80 (36)
Levels of physical activity         
Low 9/82 (11) 1/81 (1) 4/85 (5) 12/111 (11) 9/92 (10) 5/110 (5) 3/76 (4) 3/80 (4)
Medium 37/82 (45) 41/81 (51) 46/85 (54) 52/111 (47) 46/92 (50) 56/110 (51) 35/76 (46) 39/80 (49)
High 35/82 (43) 38/81 (47) 31/85 (36) 45/111 (41) 37/92 (40) 46/110 (42) 35/76 (46) 34/80 (43)
  1. a All values are mean ± SD (continuous variables) or frequencies (categorical variables). Values in parentheses are frequencies expressed in percent. b The volume of one cup of coffee is 150 mL