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Table 2 Age-adjusted and multivariable-adjusteda bone mineral density (BMD) in the proximal femur (mean and 95% CI) of the PIVUS cohort by amount of coffee consumption

From: Coffee consumption and CYP1A2 genotype in relation to bone mineral density of the proximal femur in elderly men and women: a cohort study

Categories of coffee consumption (cupsb/day)
  0-2 3 4 >4 β c (95% CI) per cup
p for trend
All participants (n = 717)
  n = 174 n = 191 n = 161 n = 191  
Age-adjusted 0.96 (0.94, 0.98) 0.93 (0.91, 0.95) 0.95 (0.93, 0.97) 0.95 (0.92, 0.97) 0.0006
(-0.0061, 0.0074)
  Reference p = 0.06 p = 0.59 p = 0.44 p = 0.85
Multivariate-adjusted 0.96 (0.94, 0.98) 0.94 (0.93, 0.96) 0.94 (0.92, 0.96) 0.94 (0.92, 0.96) -0.0064
(-0.0127, -0.0001)
  Reference p = 0.15 p = 0.09 p = 0.08 p = 0.04
Men (n = 359)
  n = 82 n = 81 n = 85 n = 111  
Age-adjusted 1.05 (1.02, 1.09) 1.00 (0.97, 1.04) 1.01 (0.98, 1.04) 1.01 (0.98, 1.03) -0.0054
(-0.0133, 0.0025)
  Reference p = 0.03 p = 0.07 p = 0.03 p = 0.18
Multivariate-adjusted 1.05 (1.02, 1.08) 1.02 (0.99, 1.04) 1.01 (0.98, 1.03) 1.01 (0.98, 1.03) -0.0072
(-0.0151, 0.0008)
  Reference p = 0.10 p = 0.04 p = 0.04 p = 0.08
Women (n = 358)
  n = 92 n = 110 n = 76 n = 80  
Age-adjusted 0.87 (0.85, 0.90) 0.87 (0.85, 0.90) 0.88 (0.85, 0.91) 0.86 (0.83, 0.89) -0.0043
(-0.0136, 0.0054)
  Reference p = 0.96 p = 0.72 p = 0.57 p = 0.40
Multivariate-adjusted 0.87 (0.85, 0.90) 0.87 (0.85, 0.90) 0.88 (0.85, 0.91) 0.86 (0.84, 0.89) -0.0041
(-0.0138, 0.0056)
  Reference p = 0.91 p = 0.73 p = 0.62 p = 0.41
  1. a Adjusted by age at the BMD-measurement, height, weight, total caloric intake, vitamin D intake, vitamin A intake, calcium intake, alcohol intake, intake of tea (all continuous), smoking (never, current, former) and levels of leisure physical activity (low, medium, high) b The volume of one cup of coffee is 150 mLc Per cup of coffee