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Table 2 Serum Uric Acid Concentrations by Dietary Fructose, Alcohol, and Fiber Intakes [mean (SD), mg/dL], in Adult Population, Age 20-80 y, NHANES 1999-2004*

From: Lack of association between dietary fructose and hyperuricemia risk in adults

N = 9,384 By fructose intake quartiles  
  1 2 3 4 P of model
Added unbound fructose (g/d) (≤ 3.84) (≤ 14.63) (≤ 30.04) (>30.04)  
   Unadjusted model 5.25 (1.48) 5.10 (1.41)b 5.23 (1.39) 5.44 (1.42)c < 0.0001
   Adjusted model 5.58 (1.56) 5.50 (1.57)a 5.58 (1.59) 5.63 (1.81) 0.004
All added fructose (g/d) (≤ 15.98) (≤ 31.60) (≤ 54.43) (>54.43)  
   Unadjusted model 5.23 (1.46) 5.19 (1.43) 5.18 (1.43) 5.40 (1.40)c 0.0002
   Adjusted model 5.57 (1.60) 5.57 (1.55) 5.54 (1.64) 5.59 (1.91) 0.531
Total fructose (g/d) (≤ 24.29) (≤ 41.23) (≤ 64.11) (>64.11)  
   Unadjusted model 5.29 (1.49) 5.21 (1.42) 5.16 (1.41)b 5.36 (1.40) 0.01
   Adjusted model 5.62 (1.62) 5.56 (1.56) 5.53 (1.65) 5.54 (1.94) 0.158
Added unbound fructose (% kcal) (≤ 0.78) (≤ 2.73) (≤ 5.50) (>5.50)  
   Unadjusted model 5.28 (1.48) 5.13 (1.41)b 5.27 (1.40) 5.33 (1.42) 0.002
   Adjusted model 5.58 (1.53) 5.49 (1.57)a 5.59 (1.60) 5.64 (1.76) 0.006
Added all fructose (% kcal) (≤ 3.57) (≤ 6.36) (≤ 9.68) (>9.68)  
   Unadjusted model 5.35 (1.49) 5.19 (1.43)c 5.21 (1.40)b 5.26 (1.41) 0.001
   Adjusted model 5.58 (1.54) 5.55 (1.54) 5.55 (1.56) 5.62 (1.84) 0.174
Total fructose (% kcal) (≤ 5.48) (≤ 8.28) (≤ 11.48) (>11.48)  
   Unadjusted model 5.42 (1.50) 5.25 (1.39)c 5.14 (1.42)c 5.2 (1.41)c < 0.0001
   Adjusted model 5.58 (1.53) 5.57 (1.56) 5.53 (1.63) 5.62 (1.85) 0.098
N = 9,384 By alcohol intake levels (g/day)  
  1 (0) 2 (≤ 15) 3 (≤ 30) 4 (>30)  
   Unadjusted model 5.12 (1.41) 5.17 (1.40) 5.73 (1.42)c 5.93 (1.39)c < 0.0001
   Adjusted model 5.31 (1.87) 5.38 (1.27) 5.65 (1.22)c 5.72 (1.39)c < 0.0001
N = 9,384 By fiber intake quartiles (g/1000 kcal, 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ)  
  1 (≤ 4.6) 2 (≤ 6.7) 3 (≤ 9.5) 4 (>9.5)  
   Unadjusted model 5.49 (1.50) 5.26 (1.43)c 5.18 (1.41)c 5.08 (1.36)c < 0.0001
   Adjusted model 5.60 (1.33) 5.51 (1.16)a 5.51 (1.50)a 5.45 (1.34)c 0.0016
  1. *Serum uric acid 1 mg/dL = 59.48 μmol/L. Compared to the values of intake level 1 or quartile1, superscripted letter a represents P < 0.05, b represents P < 0.01, and c represents P < 0.001.
  2. Adjusted model = adjusted for sex, age, BMI, race, education, quartile intakes of kcal, protein, total fat, total fructose (in modeling alcohol/fiber intakes), fiber/1000 kcal, and vitamin C, and alcohol intake level.