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Table 3 Influence of Fructose, Alcohol, and Fiber Intakes on the Risk of Hyperuricemia in Adult Population Aged 20-80 y, NHANES 1999-2004, Odds Ratios (95% confidence limits)*

From: Lack of association between dietary fructose and hyperuricemia risk in adults

N = 9,384 Fructose intake quartiles  
  1 2 3 4 P of model
Added unbound fructose (g/d) (≤ 3.84) (≤ 14.63) (≤ 30.04) (>30.04)  
   Unadjusted model 1 0.625 (0.435-0.899)a 0.717 (0.506-1.016) 0.758 (0.537-1.069) 0.061
   Adjusted model 1 0.731 (0.501-1.066) 0.815 (0.554-1.197) 0.916 (0.586-1.431) 0.381
All added fructose (g/d) (≤ 15.98) (≤ 31.60) (≤ 54.43) (>54.43)  
   Unadjusted model 1 0.823 (0.583-1.163) 0.716 (0.501-1.025) 0.728 (0.51-1.04) 0.215
   Adjusted model 1 0.952 (0.659-1.375) 0.896 (0.589-1.363) 0.992 (0.598-1.645) 0.944
Total fructose (g/d) (≤ 24.29) (≤ 41.23) (≤ 64.11) (>64.11)  
   Unadjusted model 1 0.642 (0.457-0.901)a 0.576 (0.405-0.817)b 0.515 (0.359-0.74)c 0.001
   Adjusted model 1 0.694 (0.481-1.001) 0.697 (0.458-1.06) 0.603 (0.357-1.019) 0.154
Added unbound fructose (% kcal) (≤ 0.78) (≤ 2.73) (≤ 5.50) (>5.50)  
   Unadjusted model 1 0.622 (0.432-0.897)a 0.727 (0.512-1.032) 0.807 (0.573-1.136) 0.068
   Adjusted model 1 0.736 (0.504-1.075) 0.831 (0.567-1.217) 0.854 (0.564-1.293) 0.456
Added all fructose (% kcal) (≤ 3.57) (≤ 6.36) (≤ 9.68) (>9.68)  
   Unadjusted model 1 0.663 (0.464-0.947) 0.734 (0.518-1.039) 0.716 (0.504-1.016) 0.088
   Adjusted model 1 0.785 (0.54-1.14) 0.868 (0.59-1.275) 0.766 (0.489-1.2) 0.549
Total fructose (% kcal) (≤ 5.48) (≤ 8.28) (≤ 11.48) (>11.48)  
   Unadjusted model 1 0.644 (0.453-0.915)a 0.698 (0.495-0.984)a 0.617 (0.432-0.882)b 0.02
   Adjusted model 1 0.754 (0.521-1.091) 0.853 (0.578-1.259) 0.715 (0.453-1.128) 0.374
N = 9384 Alcohol intake levels (g/d)  
  1 (0) 2 (≤ 15) 3 (≤ 30) 4 (>30)  
   Unadjusted model 1 0.787 (0.475-1.304) 1.729 (1.076-2.777)a 1.829 (1.309-2.556)c < 0.001
   Adjusted model 1 0.86 (0.513-1.443) 1.511 (0.912-2.505) 1.658 (1.078-2.549)a 0.057
N = 9384 Fiber intake quartiles (g/1000 kcal, 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ)  
  1 (≤ 4.6) 2 (≤ 6.7) 3 (≤ 9.5) 4 (>9.5)  
   Unadjusted model 1 0.599 (0.427-0.839)b 0.522 (0.367-0.742)c 0.478 (0.333-0.686)c < 0.001
   Adjusted model 1 0.637 (0.445-0.912)a 0.552 (0.373-0.816)b 0.448 (0.291-0.69)c 0.0013
  1. *Compared to the values of intake quartile1 or level 1, superscripted letter a represents P < 0.05, b represents P < 0.01, and c represents P < 0.001.
  2. Adjusted model = adjusted for sex, age, BMI, race, education, quartile intakes of kcal, protein, total fat, total fructose (in modeling alcohol/fiber intakes), fiber/1000 kcal, and vitamin C, and alcohol intake level.
  3. The range of P values for tests of model Goodness of Fit was between 0.17-0.87, which indicates that dependent variable could be satisfactorily explained by independent variables.