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Table 2 Immune cell response following daily supplementation with 0, 2 or 8 mg astaxanthin after 0, 4 and 8 wk.

From: Astaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and enhanced immune response in humans

Treatment Wk 0 Wk 4 Wk 8
Total T cells (%)    
   0 mg 65.9 ± 2.1 64.4 ± 1.9b 70.6 ± 1.5b
   2 mg 69.5 ± 1.4 69.6 ± 1.5a 75.7 ± 1.6a
   8 mg 67.2 ± 2.2 69.6 ± 1.8a 74.3 ± 1.8ab
Total Th cells (%)    
   0 mg 35.3 ± 1.5 36.3 ± 1.7 39.6 ± 1.4
   2 mg 35.3 ± 1.8 36.0 ± 1.9 39.7 ± 2.0
   8 mg 35.2 ± 1.5 34.3 ± 1.4 38.4 ± 1.2
Total Tc cells (%)    
   0 mg 26.7 ± 1.4 26.1 ± 1.2 28.4 ± 1.4
   2 mg 28.2 ± 1.9 27.6 ± 1.9 28.7 ± 1.6
   8 mg 28.4 ± 1.6 28.3 ± 1.6 28.8 ± 2.1
Th:Tc ratio cells    
   0 mg 1.35 ± 0.07 1.43 ± 0.09 1.48 ± 0.10
   2 mg 1.31 ± 0.15 1.35 ± 0.16 1.46 ± 0.15
   8 mg 1.31 ± 0.13 1.29 ± 0.13 1.37 ± 0.14
Total B cells (%)    
   0 mg 11.4 ± 0.9 11.1 ± 0.5 10.7 ± 0.5b
   2 mg 13.1 ± 1.1 12.7 ± 1.2 13.1 ± 0.5a
   8 mg 13.3 ± 1.4 11.9 ± 0.7 11.1 ± 0.3ab
Total NK cells (%)    
   0 mg 13.7 ± 0.9 12.6 ± 1.2 10.6 ± 0.8
   2 mg 12.5 ± 1.0 13.1 ± 1.9 12.6 ± 1.5
   8 mg 13.4 ± 1.1 15.6 ± 1.4 13.1 ± 1.4
NK cytotoxic activity(% lysis)    
   0 mg 51.5 ± 4.4 51.0 ± 2.5 57.8 ± 2.7b
   2 mg 58.2 ± 3.8 54.4 ± 2.9 57.1 ± 2.6b
   8 mg 56.1 ± 3.1 54.3 ± 1.9 67.9 ± 3.0a
  1. a, b Different letters represent significant treatment differences (P < 0.05) as analyzed by ANOVA. Values are means ± SEM.