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Table 3 Cytokine response following daily supplementation with 0, 2 or 8 mg astaxanthin after 0, 4 and 8 wk.

From: Astaxanthin decreased oxidative stress and inflammation and enhanced immune response in humans

Treatment Wk 0 Wk 4 Wk 8
TNF-α (pg/mL); Overall SE = 0.43    
   0 mg 1.14 1.63 1.43
   2 mg 0.80 1.13 1.44
   8 mg 1.51 2.15 2.60
IFN-γ (pg/mL); Overall SE = 0.34    
   0 mg 5.85 4.47 4.68b
   2 mg 4.87 4.26 5.00b
   8 mg 4.67 6.23 9.55a
IL-6 (pg/mL); Overall SE = 2.9    
   0 mg 10.5 12.7 13.6b
   2 mg 10.0 11.5 8.7b
   8 mg 11.5 12.4 25.2a
IL-2 (pg/mL); Overall SE = 0.10    
   0 mg 8.61 8.04 7.74
   2 mg 5.09 4.67 4.46
   8 mg 4.91 4.01 3.90
  1. a, b Different letters represent significant treatment differences (P < 0.05) as analyzed by ANOVA. Values are means; variation is expressed as a representative overall standard error.