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Table 1 Clinical and dietary variables in all subjects combined and by ethnic group

From: Vitamin D intake is associated with insulin sensitivity in African American, but not European American, women

  All (n = 252) AA (n = 115) EA(n = 137)
Age (yr) 34.5 ± 6.0 34.0 ± 6.1 34.8 ± 6.0
Weight (kg) 75.3 ± 8.8 74.5 ± 9.0 76.0 ± 8.6
Height (cm) 164.5 ± 6.5 163.6 ± 6.6 165.2 ± 6.3*
BMI (kg/m2) 27.7 ± 2.3 27.8 ± 2.4 27.7 ± 2.2
Total body fat (kg) 31.4 ± 6.6 32.0 ± 6.4 30.6 ± 6.4
Lean body mass (kg) 40.3 ± 4.1 40.3 ± 4.5 40.4 ± 3.8
Fasting glucose (mmol/l) 4.9 ± 0.3 4.8 ± 0.3 5.0 ± 0.3
Fasting insulin (pmol/l) 77.8 ± 29.9 82.0 ± 35.4 75.0 ± 24.3
HOMA-IR 2.5 ± 1.0 2.6 ± 1.2 2.4 ± 0.8
SI [× 10-4min-1/(μIU/ml)] 3.6 ± 2.8 2.8 ± 2.0 4.3 ± 3.2
Energy intake (kcal) 1767.2 ± 474.9 1687.2 ± 485.0 1834.3 ± 457.2*
% kcal from carbohydrates 48.1 ± 8.4 46.8 ± 8.8 49.1 ± 7.9*
% kcal from fat 36.8 ± 6.6 37.8 ± 6.8 35.9 ± 6.4*
% kcal from protein 15.5 ± 3.1 15.9 ± 3.1 15.3 ± 3.2
Vitamin D (IU/d) 125.5 ± 83.6 111.5 ± 74.8 133.7 ± 88.9*
Calcium (mg/d) 628.3 ± 279.5 507.9 ± 205.2 729.3 ± 293.8
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD. Abbreviations: AA, African American; EA, European American; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; SI, insulin sensitivity index. Statistical analyses were performed on log10-transformed data for SI, vitamin D, calcium, HOMA-IR, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin. P for difference between groups determined using a two-group t-test.
  2. *P < 0.05 for difference between ethnic groups
  3. P < 0.001 for difference between ethnic groups
  4. n = 114 AA