Selective suppression by restricted food intake versus exercise of the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissues. The mRNA expression levels were determined by quantitative RT-PCR for (A) osteopontin (OPN), (B) tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), (C) monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and (D) interlukin-6 (IL-6) in white adipose tissues and the liver of mice subjected to food restriction versus exercise for 8 weeks. Data are shown as means ± SEM (n = 6/group). Statistical analyses were done with one-way ANOVA. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 vs. LC; #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01 vs. HC; Δp < 0.05, ΔΔp < 0.01 vs. HRE; N.S.: not significant.