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Table 1 Blood parameters

From: Sexual dimorphism in the lasting effects of moderate caloric restriction during gestation on energy homeostasis in rats is related with fetal programming of insulin and leptin resistance

   Glucose (mg/dl) Insulin (μg/l) Leptin (μg/l) Triglycerides (mg/ml) NEFA (μg/l)
   Control CR Control CR Control CR Control CR Control CR
MALES            
  Ad libitum 98 ± 4 95 ± 4 0.774 ± 0.166 1.44 ± 0.27# 3.52 ± 0.43 3.38 ± 0.44 0.669 ± 0.193 1.48 ± 0.20# 0.447 ± 0.054 0.895 ± 0.054#
2 month-old 14-h fasting 65 ± 2+ 66 ± 3+ 0.115 ± 0.029+ 0.103 ± 0.026+ 0.832 ± 0.053+ 0.471 ± 0.086+ 0.447 ± 0.065 1.30 ± 0.24# 0.622 ± 0.077 1.21 ± 0.03+ #
  ANOVA F RxF F R R,F
  Ad libitum 73 ± 2 77 ± 2 1.44 ± 0.24 2.29 ± 0.60 7.34 ± 0.74 9.48 ± 0.71 1.25 ± 0.25 1.57 ± 0.13 0.765 ± 0.079 1.12 ± 0.16
4 month-old 14-h fasting 64 ± 3+ 72 ± 3 0.468 ± 0.094+ 1.15 ± 0.29+ # 4.23 ± 0.31+ 4.82 ± 0.33+ 0.636 ± 0.153+ 1.12 ± 0.10+ # 0.842 ± 0.144 1.35 ± 0.11#
  ANOVA F F F R,F R
  Ad libitum 77 ± 5 80 ± 2 1.47 ± 0.41 2.69 ± 0.68# 8.17 ± 1.25 15.3 ± 1.6# 1.06 ± 0.16 1.94 ± 0.23# 1.27 ± 0.07 1.17 ± 0.14
5 month-old 14-h fasting 63 ± 3+ 65 ± 3+ 0.583 ± 0.147+ 1.43 ± 0.35+ # 4.44 ± 0.78+ 6.17 ± 0.84+ 1.02 ± 0.21 1.31 ± 0.21+ 1.20 ± 0.10 1.26 ± 0.07
  ANOVA F R,F RxF R   
FEMALES            
  Ad libitum 92 ± 3 100 ± 5 0.657 ± 0.115 1.55 ±0.35# 3.38 ± 0.44 2.87 ± 0.32 0.373 ± 0.063 0.946 ± 0.142# 0.529 ± 0.057 0.921 ± 0.047#
2 month-old 14-h fasting 71 ± 2+ 71 ± 3+ 0.134 ± 0.019+ 0.134 ±0.014+ 0.448 ± 0.055+ 0.511 ± 0.129+ 0.516 ± 0.148 0.633 ± 0.217 0.657 ± 0.085 1.28 ± 0.11+ #
  ANOVA F RxF F R R,F
  Ad libitum 84 ± 6 82 ± 2 1.27 ± 0.16 1.86 ±0.35 5.59 ± 0.26 6.31 ± 0.37 0.747 ± 0.176 1.66 ± 0.38# 0.715 ± 0.090 1.35 ± 0.15#
4 month-old 14-h fasting 67 ± 3+ 67 ± 1+ 0.246 ± 0.045+ 0.465 ±0.120+ 2.03 ± 0.17+ 2.09 ± 0.10+ 0.496 ± 0.119+ 0.693 ± 0.102+ 0.826 ± 0.105 1.26 ± 0.08#
  ANOVA F F F R,F R
  Ad libitum 80 ± 1 81 ± 3 1.47 ± 0.19 2.34 ± 0.33# 7.21 ± 0.67 6.21 ± 0.449 0.909 ± 0.290 1.44 ± 0.30 0.957 ± 0.068 1.10 ± 0.09
5 month-old 14-h fasting 69 ± 2+ 60 ± 3+ # 0.251 ± 0.033+ 0.476 ± 0.103+ 2.98 ± 0.20+ 3.25 ± 0.162+ 1.14 ± 0.32 1.19 ± 0.29 1.17 ± 0.09 1.30 ± 0.12
  ANOVA F R, F F     
  1. Circulating glucose, insulin, leptin, triacylglicerides and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) in male and female offspring of controls and caloric restricted dams during gestation (CR) at the ages of 2, 4 and 5 months, under ad libitum feeding conditions and after 14 h fasting conditions. Animals were fed with standard normal fat (NF) diet until the age of 4 months and then exposed to a high fat (HF) diet. Data are mean ± S.E.M. (n = 8). Statistics: R, effect of caloric restriction; F effect of fasting; RxF, interaction between caloric restriction and fasting (ANOVA repeated measures). #, different from their respective control group (Student's t test); +, different from fed conditions (Paired t test).