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Table 3 Effect of Paleolithic diet compared to Mediterranean diet on levels of leptin, leptin receptor and free leptin index (mean ± SD)

From: A paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie than a mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischemic heart disease

  Paleolithic diet Mediterranean diet P*
  (n = 14) (n = 15)  
Fasting plasma leptin, ng/ml    
   Baseline 10,7 ± 3,9 13,5 ± 11,0 0,4
   6 weeks 6,6 ± 3,0 10,9 ± 8,5 0,08
   12 weeks 7,1 ± 3,2 11,0 ± 8,4 0,11
   Change 0-6 weeks -4,0 ± 3,1 -2,6 ± 3,3 0,2
P for change within groups 0-6 weeks 0,0003 0,01  
   Relative change 0-6 weeks,% -34 ± 25 -19 ± 20 0,08
   Relative change 0-6 weeks, **outlier excluded,% -37 ± 23 -19 ± 20 0,03
   Change 0-12 weeks -3,6 ± 3,0 -2,5 ± 4,0 0,4
P for change within groups 0-12 weeks 0,0006 0,03  
   Relative change 0-12 weeks,% -31 ± 26 -18 ± 22 0,15
   Relative change 0-12 weeks, **outlier excluded,% -35 ± 21 -18 ± 22 0,04
Fasting plasma leptin receptor, ng/ml    
   Baseline 19,0 ± 8,9 14,9 ± 5,7 0,14
   6 weeks 20,5 ± 12,3 19,6 ± 8,7 0,8
   12 weeks 20,6 ± 10,8 18,1 ± 5,7 0,5
   Change 0-6 weeks 1,5 ± 7,2 4,7 ± 8,2 0,3
P for change within groups 0-6 weeks 0,5 0,04  
   Relative change 0-6 weeks,% 13 ± 45 37 ± 50 0,2
   Change 0-12 weeks 1,5 ± 7,0 3,2 ± 7,2 0,5
P for change within groups 0-12 weeks 0,4 0,10  
   Relative change 0-12 weeks,% 17 ± 51 33 ± 49 0,4
Free leptin index    
   Baseline 0,7 ± 0,5 1,1 ± 1,3 0,3
   6 weeks 0,5 ± 0,5 0,7 ± 0,7 0,3
   12 weeks 0,5 ± 0,4 0,6 ± 0,4 0,3
   Change 0-6 weeks -0,3 ± 0,6 -0,4 ± 0,7 0,5
P for change within groups 0-6 weeks 0,09 0,04  
   Relative change 0-6 weeks,% -29 ± 47 -33 ± 29 0,8
   Change 0-12 weeks -0,2 ± 0,5 -0,5 ± 1,0 0,4
P for change within groups 0-12 weeks 0,08 0,08  
   Relative change 0-12 weeks,% -28 ± 43 -30 ± 33 0,9
  1. *P for difference between groups in a two-sided t-test with independent samples. ** One individual from the Paleolithic group was an outlier in terms of cereal intake.